Enuresis in children and adolescents with sickle cell anaemia is more frequent and substantially different from the general population
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Background No large studies have examined the prevalence of enuresis, its various forms and risk factors in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in Sub-Saharan Africa using standardised definitions. We determined age and gender-specific prevalence of enuresis and compared the nature of enuresis in children with and without SCA. We also identified predictors of enuresis in children with SCA. Methods Caregivers of children with SCA attending a tertiary centre haematology clinic in Nigeria were interviewed using a questionnaire. In addition, a separate questionnaire was completed for every sibling aged 5±17 years whose haemoglobin genotype was known. Enuresis and its various forms were defined using the definitions of the International Children's Continence Society. Results The study involved 243 children with SCA and 243 controls matched for age and sex. The mean age of the study cohort was 9.9 (3.4). Females made up 45.7% of the cohorts. The prevalence of enuresis was 49.4% and 29.6% in children with and without SCA, respectively (p = 0.009). In both groups, the prevalence of enuresis declined with age but remained five times higher at 25% in children with SCA aged 14±17 years compared with controls. Also, children with SCA and enuresis were older, more likely to have non-mono symptomatic enuresis and wet at least three nights per week than controls. Independent predictors of enuresis in children with SCA were a family history of enuresis and young age. Conclusion Children with SCA had more frequent and more severe enuresis which persisted to late adolescence than age and sex-matched controls. These features indicate a subset of enuresis that is difficult to treat in the general population. Young age and enuresis in a family member define a subset of children with SCA more likely to have enuresis. Healthcare workers need to discuss enuresis with parents of children with SCA and offer referral to continence services.
sickle cell anaemia , enuresis , monosymptomatic enuresis , International Children's Continence Society , Research Subject Categories::MEDICINE
Esezobor C.I., Akintan P., Nwaogazie U., Akinwunmi E., Temiye E., Akinsulie A., Gbadegesin R. (2018). Enuresis in children and adolescents with sickle cell anaemia is more frequent and substantially different from the general population. PLoS ONE 13 (8): e0201860. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0201860