Cytotoxic potentials of Africa never die plant: Bryophyllum pinnatum [Lam] leaf oils.

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Odimegwu, J
Iboi, V
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Gordon Research Conferences. GRC
Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Crassulaceae is popularly known as AFRICA NEVER DIE, life plant, air plant. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the leaves are used widely as mono or polyherbal for various medicinal purposes by indigenous communities; anti-diabetes, antitumor and antimicrobial medicine. In this study; oils from fresh leaves were extracted using soxhlet apparatus and the chemical constituents were analyzed with Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry. Cytotoxic activity was checked using root tips assays of Allium cepa with concentrations ranging from 1ug/ml to 1mg/ml. Presence of medicinally important fatty acids and terpenes were observed. 25 compounds in all were discovered with γ-Linolenic acid being the most abundant at 26.04 % of the total. Ethanolic extracts of the leaves were phytochemically screened for content and showed the presence of cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponins and flavonoids. The oil extracts worked in a concentration dependent manner in inhibiting root growth and interfering with cell division in the A. cepa root tips with the highest inhibitory effect at 0.4mg/ml. Induced chromosomal aberration were significant at 1ug/ml. Some of the chromosomal aberrations observed in the treated root tips are binucleate chromosomes, sticky chromosomes, c-mitosis, bridged anaphase, vagrant and attached chromosomes. The anti-mitotic potential observed shows that the oil contain compounds that may be useful in development of anti-cancer medicines to prevent the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells. Theses observations could lead to further more detailed work on the species for novel anti-cancer lead compounds.
Bryophyllum pinnatum, Chromosomes, Cytotoxic, Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry, Herbal Medicine,