Pharmacognosy- Conference Papers

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    Open Access
    Evaluation of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench on the Reduction of Creatinine Levels and Its Antioxidant Properties In vitro
    (Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2022-12-20) Obika, Ogochukwu I.; Oyawaluja, Aminat A.; Oiseoghaede, Joseph O.; Odukoya, Olukemi A.; Obika-Ndiri, Ngozi A.
    The study investigated the effect of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench extract on the renal activity of both normal and ailing patients. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activity, vacuum liquid chromatography and TLC were carried out. The creatinine reduction ability was analyzed using Jaffe’s method for clean-catch spot urine samples of normal, diabetic and hypertensive patients. S. bicolor showed strong antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 52.17 µg/ml, compared to the standard vitamin C with an IC50 value of 40.59 µg/ml. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) result showed a significant difference between the patients’ urine (rows) (p-value = 2.77×10–08 ) and a significant difference between the dose treatments (columns) (p-value = 8.38×10–14). Whilst different fractions of S. bicolor at different concentrations showed varying effects on the creatinine concentration, it reduced creatinine level in low doses and has antioxidant properties.
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    Open Access
    Epidemiology of anti-cancer herbal medicines in dual management of viral infections and gynecologic cancers.
    (UNESCO- Merck Africa Research Summit (MARS), 2016) Odimegwu, Joy; Borokini, O.T.; Oyedere, T; Oyekanmi, Y.; Odukoya, Olukemi Abiodun
    Gynecologic cancers are the fourth most common type of cancers affecting approximately 1 in 20 women in the world1. Women in the WHO African Region had the highest incidence of cancer of the cervix uteri1. Interventions and viable solutions to gynecological cancers are needed urgently in order to stem its tide of devastation especially in the African region where there is a dearth of good health care systems even at the primary level. Viral infections are now known to lead to certain cancers, A few types of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) are the main causes of cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Medicinal plants are considered valuable sources of novel compounds having potential for the development of new pharmaceuticals, and are known as ‘Chemical Goldmines’ of novel products and applications. Thousands of people in Africa, an estimated 80% of the total population depend on herbal medicines for their primary health care needs. Dioscorea spp. is a popularly used herb generally taken alone or in multiple-herb formulations for a range of ailments. Anti-bacterial, antioxidative, and hypolipidemic activities, etc., have been reported. Extracts from Dioscorea ameliorates menopausal symptoms2 and are implicated locally in the management of certain infections and tumors. Three Dioscorea species; Dioscorea composita, Dioscorea floribunda, and Dioscorea alata were analyzed for their phytochemical content and anticancer potentials using Allium cepa assays. The extracts demonstrated inhibited root growth and cell division in the A. cepa root tips with the highest inhibitory effect at 0.2mg/ml and 0.6mg/ml. Chromosomal aberrations are a sign of cytotoxicity of extract, those observed in the treated root tips are binucleate chromosomes, sticky chromosomes, c-mitosis, bridged anaphase, vagrant and attached chromosomes. Induced chromosomal aberrations were significant at all concentrations. These results confirm the cytotoxic effect of Dioscorea extracts as already published for species other the ones used in these studies. Further anticancer and antiviral assays will be carried out using human cell lines to develop the findings. References 1.Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, Parkin DM, Forman D, Bray, F. (2014). GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.1, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2.Wu, W. H, Liu, L.Y, Chung, C. J, Jou, H. J, Wang, T. A. (2005). Estrogenic effect of yam ingestion in healthy postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr; 24: 235-243. 3.Liu H, Chou GX, Guo YL, Ji LL, Wang JM, (2010). Norclerodane diterpenoids from rhizomes of Dioscorea bulbifera. Phytochemistry 71: 1174-1180.
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    Open Access
    Cytotoxic potentials of Africa never die plant: Bryophyllum pinnatum [Lam] leaf oils.
    (Gordon Research Conferences. GRC, 2016-01-30) Odimegwu, J; Iboi, V
    Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Crassulaceae is popularly known as AFRICA NEVER DIE, life plant, air plant. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the leaves are used widely as mono or polyherbal for various medicinal purposes by indigenous communities; anti-diabetes, antitumor and antimicrobial medicine. In this study; oils from fresh leaves were extracted using soxhlet apparatus and the chemical constituents were analyzed with Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry. Cytotoxic activity was checked using root tips assays of Allium cepa with concentrations ranging from 1ug/ml to 1mg/ml. Presence of medicinally important fatty acids and terpenes were observed. 25 compounds in all were discovered with γ-Linolenic acid being the most abundant at 26.04 % of the total. Ethanolic extracts of the leaves were phytochemically screened for content and showed the presence of cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponins and flavonoids. The oil extracts worked in a concentration dependent manner in inhibiting root growth and interfering with cell division in the A. cepa root tips with the highest inhibitory effect at 0.4mg/ml. Induced chromosomal aberration were significant at 1ug/ml. Some of the chromosomal aberrations observed in the treated root tips are binucleate chromosomes, sticky chromosomes, c-mitosis, bridged anaphase, vagrant and attached chromosomes. The anti-mitotic potential observed shows that the oil contain compounds that may be useful in development of anti-cancer medicines to prevent the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells. Theses observations could lead to further more detailed work on the species for novel anti-cancer lead compounds.
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    (Gordon Research Conferences. GRC, 2015) Odimegwu, J; Omoniyi, D; Odukoya, O.A
    Human fungal infestations can be very difficult to eradicate as there may be associations of organisms in a reported infection. There is an urgent search for anti-fungal compounds from nature to combat the scourge. Fatty acids are widely occurring in plants and dietary oils and they are known to have antibacterial and anti fungal properties. Pterocarpus mildbraedii (Harms) belongs to the family Fabaceae. The leaves are mostly boiled and consumed in soup as food in Nigeria and Ghana. Therapeutically, alcoholic extracts from the leaves and shoots are used in the management of pain, headaches, fungal infections, general microbial infections and fever by local communities. The evaluation of the chemical constituents of the oil from leaves and shoots of Pterocarpus mildbraedii took the form of soxhlet extraction and GC-MS. The investigation of the anti-fungal properties was carried out using the Agar well diffusion assay against Penicillum sp with Clotrimazole as standard drug. Total oil yield was 0.88%, the GC-MS analysis revealed presence of 8 compounds with α linolenic acid being the most abundant at 67%. It is a polyunsaturated fatty acid essential in human nutrition. Fig. 1 Chemical structure of α linolenic acid Phytochemical assays indicated presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids in the alcoholic extracts. These together with the fatty acids may be responsible for the anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal properties already reported about the plant. The oils worked in a dose dependent manner with higher concentration giving greater inhibition; the greatest zone of inhibition was recorded at 264 µg/ml, much more than that of the standard at 10 µg/ml. Further research is suggested in order to ascertain the mechanism of action of the fixed oil and the main compound responsible for its bioactivity. Key words: α Linolenic acid, Fixed oils, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Pterocarpus mildbraedii
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    Open Access
    Antiviral synergism and GC/MS analysis of seed oils of West African Plants Garcinia kola Heckel (Clusiaceae) and Aframomum melegueta K. Schum (Zingiberaceae)
    (UNESCO-MERCK, 2015) Odimegwu, J; Asabisi, O.
    Antiviral synergism and GC/MS analysis of seed oils of West African Plants Garcinia kola Heckel (Clusiaceae) and Aframomum melegueta K. Schum (Zingiberaceae) Odimegwu, Joy Ifunanya and Asabisi, Olatunde Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy. College of Medicine Campus. PMB 12003 Idi-araba. Surulere. Lagos. Nigeria Contact: 234 8170140519 or Medicinal plants are increasingly being projected as suitable alternative sources of antiviral agents. There is need for rapid identification of potential bioactive components of plant parts. Also standardization and/or pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic profiling of the bioactive components is key in this area especially for this class of natural compounds. Garcinia kola (Gk) and Aframomum melegueta (Am) seeds are locally sourced in many countries in Africa and wholly used locally to treat and manage viral infections and food poisoning. The oils were selected for this study in order to explore the bioactive components in the oils which are yet to be assayed as antiviral components. The study is ongoing as we work to ascertain bioactive components in the oils and possible synergistic antiviral actions in the components of the two plants. Keywords: Aframomum melegueta, food poisoning, Garcinia kola and Herbal medicines