Nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic effects of orally-administrated aqueous root bark extract of Securidaca longepedunculata (Polygalaceae) in female Wistar rats

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Lawal, R.A
Odesanmi, O.S
Ebuehi, O.A.T.
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Lagos University Medical Society
Background: Securidaca longepedunculata (Polygalaceae) is a savannah shrub commonly used by traditional medical practitioners in Nigeria. The plant is reported to have over one hundred medical indications. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effect of oral administration of the aqueous extract of the root bark of S. longepedunculata (SLE) in female Wistar rats for 14 days. Methods: Thirty (30) acclimatized, healthy, female rats weighing 110g - 126g were randomly divided into five groups. Animals in group 1 served as control and received only distilled water. Animals in groups 2, 3, 4, 5 received 50, 75, 100, 125 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of the root bark of S. longepedunculata orally for 14 days respectively. Animals were anaesthetized on the 15th day after an overnight fast. Venous blood samples were analyzed for liver and kidney function parameters using standard protocols. Excised organs were used for the histological examination of the liver and kidney. Results: Phytochemical analysis of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and carbohydrates. The aqueous extract of the root bark of S. longepedunculata caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, cholesterol and urea levels. Aqueous extract of the root bark of S. longepedunculata did not induce any marked pathological lesions in the liver and kidneys. Conclusion: Oral administration of Aqueous root bark extract of S. longepedunculata did not have any marked adverse effect on kidney and liver functions in female rats.
hepatotoxicity , rats , nephrotoxicity , longepedunculata
RA Lawal, OS Odesanmi, OAT Ebuehi Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine 24 (1), 51-56