UNILAG Journal of Medicine, Science & Technology
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- ItemOpen AccessComparative Investigation of Orange Juice and Vitamin C on Gene Expression in Neuronal Tissues of Sprague Dawley Rats(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Ebuchi, O.A; Salami, Y; James, A.B; Mgbeadichie, I.NFull Texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessConcurrent Intestinal Parasitoses with Cryptosporidium Species among Parasites with Gastrointestinal Disorder in Lagos, Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Ojuromi, O.T; Oyibo, W.A; Oladosu, O.O; Fagbenro-Beyioku, A.F; Ibidapo, C.A; Opedun, D.O; Uhoegbu, O.UFull Texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessInsecticide Resistance Status of Anopheles Gambiae Breeding in Stagnant Water Bodies in Lagos, Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Olojede, J.B; Oyibo, W; Oduola, A.O; Oyewole, I.O; Awolola, T.SFull Texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessThe Growth Performance of Oreochromis niloticus Fed Graded Levels of Mussel, Mytilus edulis shell as Possible Replacement for Di-ealcium Phosphate(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Soyinka, O.O; Ifedayo, S.OFull texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessDevelopment of a Faster Technique for the Speciation of Potentially Toxic Metals in soil(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Oyeyiola, A.O; Hamed, M.O; Odujebe, F.O; Olayinka, K.O; Alo, B.IFull texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessWide Crosses in Cowpea: An Appraisal of some Resistance and Susceptible Lines(University of Lagos Press and Bookshop, 2013) Bolarinwa, K.A; Ogunkanmi, L.A; Adekoya, K.O; Oboh, B.O; Ogundipe, O.T.Full texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessAssessment of Nequick Model at Lagos, Nigeria using GPS TEC(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Adewale, A.O; Migoya Orue, Y.O; Oyeyemi, E.OFull texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessDynamic Response of microbial System of Selected Communities in the Rivers State to Crude Oil (Hydrocarbons) Pollution(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Olanipekun, O.O; Ogunbayo, A.O; Nwachukwu, S.C.U; Bello, R.AThe activity of indigenous microbial system is a required tool to remediate an environment that has been contaminated by hydrocarbons. This work deals with the dynamic response to crude oil contaminants of undefined microbial systems in three selected communities of the Rivers State of Nigeria. The activities of indigenous (undefined) consortia were studied and compared using Respiratory technique. The soil samples were incubated with 2 % (𝑣𝑣⁄)crude oil in mineral salt medium at 37 oC in three phases of two weeks in a shake flask at 150 rpm. At the end of the last phase, components of the crude oil degraded by the undefined consortia in the soils were identified with the gas chromatographic techniques. The results obtained showed that the consortia from the different soil samples exhibited different degrees of capacities to degrade the crude oil. On the whole, 50.00 to 85.70 % of hydrocarbon components of the crude oil were degraded thus making the areas potentially suitable for in-situ bioremediation. The study has shown that the obtained microbiological characteristics and activities of the soils are adequate for bioremediation technologies.
- ItemOpen AccessPreponderance of Palmitoleic Acid in Moringa Oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) Seeds and Leaves from Chemical Analysis and Gas Chromatography(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Odimegwu, J.I; Ayodiran, S; Odukoya, O.AMoringa oleifera is the most widespread species of the genus Moringa, the only genus in the family Moringaceae. It is a very popular plant used in traditional herbal medicine. Different parts of the plant contain a profile of important minerals and phytochemicals. The leaves and seeds are good sources of proteins, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids, and phenolic compounds. Study was carried out to check chemical constituents of leaves and seed oil of M. oleifera obtained from Ikorodu, Lagos State. Nigeria. Dried plant parts were pulverized and subjected to proximate analysis while the oils were extracted from the seeds with hexane using Sohxlet apparatus and analyzed with gas chromatography. The chemical contents of M. oleifera leaves obtained through proximate analysis showed it had more protein than the seeds with 45.28% protein while the seeds had 40.10%. the most prevalent mineral elements in M. oleifera are magnesium and calcium which were found to be 49.50 and 54.85 (mg/100g) in the seed, 42.80 and 54.95 (mg/100g) in the leaves respectively. Gas chromatographic analysis of the oils showed the presence of various fatty acids and other organic compounds with palmitoleic acid being the most abundant with 48.41% yield of total oils and oleic acid being 11.45% much less than earlier reported. Palmitoleic acid has shown possible influence in fatty liver deposition/production, insulin action and fatty acid synthase. This makes M. oleifera seeds very important new source of natural therapy for hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia.
- ItemOpen AccessModelling of Maternal Health Care Services using Multinomial Logistic Regression(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Adewara, J.A; Ogunniran, A.J; Onyeka-Ubaka, J.NSeveral methods which have been adopted to analyze multi-category data yields unsatisfactory results because of strict assumptions regarding normality, linearity, and homoscedasticity. As a result, Multinomial logistic regression is considered as an alternative because it does not assume normality, linearity, or homoscedasticity (Hosmer & Lemeshow, (2000)). The study attempted to use Maximum likelihood estimation and predicted probability to model Maternal Health Care Services data based on a set of explanatory variables. Also to determine the indices that affect Mortality rate. The result shows that wealth index has a significant impact on the use of public and private health delivery facilities. Educational level, antenatal care, assistance during delivery and place of residence are also important factors in assessing Maternal Health Care Services. Finally, the study revealed that educated women, who are wealthy, living in urban areas and who received antenatal care services and assistance during delivery are more likely to utilize Maternal Health Care Services (MHCS)
- ItemOpen AccessPattern of Ordering and Usage of Homologous Blood Transfusion for Major Elective Maxillofacial Surgery at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Ayodele, A.O; Ogunlewe, M.O; Gbotolorun, O.M; Abiola, A.O; Adeyemo, W.L.Justification for the requests for homologous blood that accompany major elective maxillofacial surgical procedures is difficult to establish in most cases. This attitude of ordering for cross-matched blood is understandable in today's legal climate, but has led to serious problems in terms of laboratory inefficiency which can no longer be ignored. To evaluate the pattern of ordering and use of homologous blood, and transfusion ratios for major elective maxillofacial surgeries at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Idi-Araba Lagos. Sixty-three consecutive subjects who required major elective maxillofacial surgery under general anaesthesia, and who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Data collected included age, sex, weight, and height of subjects, type of surgery done, preoperative and intraoperative haemoglobin concentration, blood units cross-matched and units transfused intraoperatively. Each subject was made to donate through a representative donor, at least one unit of homologous blood prior to surgery. There was a male predominance (57.1%) among subjects, with male to female ratio of 1.3 : 1. Mean age of subjects was 33.9 ± 13.5 years. O+ was the most predominant blood group (62%). Tumours (58.8%), were the most common indication for surgery. Majority of subjects (95.2%), had a preoperative haemoglobin concentration of ≥ 10 g/dl. Haemoglobin concentration at the point of transfusion was ˂ 10 g/dl for 58.8% of transfused subjects. The overall cross-match to transfusion ratio was 3.35, overall probability of transfusion was 26.9%, while the overall transfusion index was 0.6. Only oncological surgical procedures showed an efficient blood usage in all the 3 indices. This study also demonstrated that only onclogical surgical procedures have an indication for cross-matching of blood for surgery, however there is a need to determine the maximum surgical blood ordering schedule for these procedures. There is therefore the need to change the blood ordering pattern, and minimize over-ordering of blood for major elective maxillofacial surgery.
- ItemOpen AccessTable of Content(2014) Journal of Medicine, Science & Technology
- ItemOpen AccessEvaluation of the Therapeutic Effects of Aloe Vera Gel on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Animal Models(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Edom, J.J; Imaga, N.O; Obomniru, G.E; Oyadina, OAloe vera gel (AVG) extract is commonly used as a home remedy for some diseases, including diabetes mellitus. This study investigates the effects of pure Aloe vera (Aloe babardensis) gel on some biochemical, haematological and histological parameters in diabetic rats. The animals were divided into six groups of six rats each (n=6). Diabetes mellitus was experimentally induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of alloxan monohydrate (170 mg/kg BW.) following a 12 h fasting period. The Groups I and V received isotonic saline in a similar manner. The establishment of diabetes mellitus was confirmed by fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels above 350mg/dl using a GlucoMetre (AccuChek Active). The AVG extract was administered for 14 days along with the metformin and alloxan drugs administered. Blood samples were collected from fasted rats. The effect of AVG on fasting blood biochemical, haematological and oxidative stress parameters in the liver and histological examination of the liver, kidney and pancreas were evaluated. Results indicated a decrease in glucose level in the AVGtreated group and an improvement in the lipid profile, as well as some haematological parameters. In addition, oral administration of Aloebarbadensis gel decreased the level of MDA with a corresponding increase in the activities of CAT, SOD, GST and GSH levels in the liver tissue of diabetic rats. These results suggest potent hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and therapeutic effects of Aloe, beneficial as a herbal remedy for the treatment/management of diabetes mellitus.
- ItemOpen AccessA Linguistic Fuzzy Expert System for Contagious Diseases Detection and Isolation(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Osigbemeh, M.S; Ogunwolu, F.O; Omoare, A.A; Inyiama, H.CThis paper presents an electronic Expert system platform to detect and diagnose existing and new cases of contagious diseases as they occur with minimal contact with the index patient(s) and healthcare personnel with a confidence level that can be used to initiate or suggest appropriate follow-up action(s). The aim is to use ICT tools for patient-diagnosis, raise a red flag in real-time and thus contain contagious cases which may degenerate into an epidemic by providing a way to analyze vague and ambiguous input data from visible and reported symptoms in patients. A re-useable Expert system which makes use of fuzzy reasoning techniques and design methodology was used in this work. The Expert system is premised on rule-based fuzzy logic which captures the ambiguity, imprecision and nuances involved in disease reporting and detection using the Mamdani model. The software developed for the Fuzzy Expert system, called SOSIC, presents its diagnosis with fuzzy values between 0 to 1 corresponding to its level of confidence for the fuzzy inputs. The current approach to e-diagnosis and detection of contagious diseases using the SOSIC software is not completely contactless, thus ongoing investigations are geared towards improving SOSIC to be contactless. The developed system which runs on a computer system provides a safe procedure with minimum contact between patients and healthcare personnel to address early detection and diagnosis issues that may help forestall chain-infection and epidemics. The fuzzy based Expert system can be further extended to accommodate the detection of a wider array of symptoms as new cases arise; thus this paper fulfils an identified need in safe healthcare practice.
- ItemOpen AccessAnti-Inflammatory Activity of Aqaeous Leaf Extract of Brassica Oleraceae, Linn Var.DC (brassicaccae)(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2015) Agbaje, E.O; Fageyinbo, M.S; Idowu, A.OFull texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessDistribution of Heavy Metals Contaminants in Surface Soil, Water, Liver, Heart and Kidney of Amphibians PtychadenapumilioAND Amietophrynusmaculatus in Selected Areas of Lagos State(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2015) Onadeko, A.B; Osuala, F.IThe increasing rate of pollution necessitates proper and effective management of environmental health by monitoring the soil, water and animal components of the environment. The study investigated distribution of selected heavy metals contaminants in soil, water samples and bioaccumulation in heart, liver and kidney of two amphibian species, Amietophrynusmaculatus and Ptychadenapumilio in selected sites such as Ibafo (bordering Lagos and Ogun States), Iwaya, Makoko 1, Makoko 2 and University of Lagos (Unilag) located in Lagos state. Heavy metals were analyzed using the Analyst 200 Perkin Elmer series of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The overall mean concentrations of the heavy metals (mg/g) in the soil samples were as follows: Fe 3.12, Cu 0.41, Ni 0.30, Cr 0.05, Cd 0.07, Pb 0.04, Zn 0.19 and Mn 0.39 thus Fe > Cu >Mn> Ni > Zn > Cd > Cr >Pb which were significantly (P < 0.05) different across the sites except for Mn, which was not significantly (P > 0.05) different (df = 4, x2 = 2.739). In water samples, the mean concentrations (mg/L) were as follows: Fe 1.80, Cu 0.74, Ni 0.78, Cr 0.06, Cd 0.05, Pb 0.03, Zn 0.54 and Mn 0.30. Zinc bioaccumulated highest in both species and in all the locations, followed by Mn and Pb. Mn, Zn and Pb concentrated more in the liver, while Ni was highest in the heart, not significantly (P > 0.05) different in both anuran species. Cr concentration in the liver of both anuran species was significantly (P < 0.05) different (df = 8, x2 = 2.717). The study has revealed the prevailing environmental health with anurans as excellent bioindicators acting as an early warning signal of potential harm to the environment.
- ItemOpen AccessWater Quality Characteristics and Phytoplankton Diversity around a Domestic Waste Polluted Site in Lagos Lagoon(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2015) Onyema, I.CThe water quality characteristics and phytoplankton at a domestic waste polluted site at Oworonsoki, Lagos Lagoon in relation to environmental factors were investigated for six months (October, 2012 – March, 2013). The water quality characteristics showed monthly variation linked to hydrological flow conditions, namely the rainfall pattern and tidal seawater inflow. Air temperature (28.3 – 32˚C), Water temperature (29 - 31˚C), Transparency (12.95 – 101.5cm), Total suspended solid (8 – 35mg/L), Total dissolved solid (553.0 – 20712.66mg/L), Conductivity (1069.0 – 31100.0µS/cm), Salinity (0.50 – 17.11 %), Acidity (4.9 – 6.3mg/L), Total hardness (102.0 – 3811.0 mg/L), Dissolved oxygen (4.8 – 5.2 mg/L), Chemical oxygen demand (14 – 23 mg/L) recorded higher values in the dry than in the wet season. High nutrients, especially nitrates and heavy metal levels between December and February points to the inflow of domestic wastes. The water quality characteristics reflected freshwaters situation in October and November (0.52 – 0.82 ‰) while December through March were increasingly brackish (9.42 – 17.11 %). The phytoplankton diversity (S) and abundance (N) were notably higher in the dry than the wet season. The phytoplankton spectrum (Bacillariophyta, Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta) were dominated by the Bacillariophyta (Diatoms) (93.47% - Centrales – 69.77 % and Pennales – 30.23%). Notable species of were Aulacoseira granulata var. angustissima, Odontella laevis, Coscinodiscus radiatus, Skeletonema coastasum, Chaetoceros convolutes, Bacillaria paxillifer, Gyrosigma balticum, Nitzschia sigmoidea, Synedra crystallina, Thalasiothrix fraunfeldii, Synedra ulna, Microcystis aeruginosa and Oscillatoria limnosa. The phytoplankton diversity at each time was reflective of the water chemistry situation. Comparatively, low phytoplankton diversity, and the occurrence of indicators of organic waste pollution are noteworthy.
- ItemOpen AccessRapd Pcr Genotyping of Ten Accessions of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Con. [Mill.] Syn. Solanum lycopersicon [Linn.])(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2015) Ogwu, M.C; Chime, A.O; Osawaru, M.E; Aiwansoba, R.O; Gbadebo, FTomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Con. [Mill.] Syn. Solanum lycopersicon [Linn.]) belongs to the family Solanaceae and order Solanales. The plant originated from South America but has been domesticated worldwide. This study investigated the variation in Tomato germplasm using RAPD PCR genotyping technique. Seven accessions; NGB01254, NGB01250, NGB01302, NG/DE/MAR/09/019, NGB01301, NGB01255 and NGB 01237 were collected from Gene Bank while three accessions were obtained from home gardens including DE/IK-L-001, DE/IK-L-002 and ED/EG-L-001. The samples were cultivated in a Screen House in the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Standard procedures were used for DNA extraction and purification while the commercial primer OPA-09 (51–GGG TAA CGC C-31) was employed for genotyping. Each DNA fragment generated from RAPD PCR genotyping was treated as a separate character and scored as a discrete variable, which was used to distinguish the accessions. Results suggest the primer was able to amplify less than 50 % of the samples studied but was able to amplify more than 50 % of the collections from home gardens. Three genetic types were observed, which may be related to nutrients, growth condition and species of Tomatoes studied. Of the ten samples studied, 4 (40.0 %) were amplified and typeable with the OPA 09 commercial primer while the remaining 6 (60.0 %) were not typeable with this primer. Although this study have further enumerated the advantages of molecular markers in plant characterization, it is important that a combination of molecular and morphological traits be considered for effective characterization of plant germplasm.
- ItemOpen AccessReduction of Chemical Oxygen Demand and Potentially Toxic Metals in Leachates Generated from Isolo Dumpsite using Different Coagulants(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2015) Oluseyi, T.O; Hamed, M.O; Ibeh, K.ILeachate samples were collected from Isolo dumpsite within a seven month period, at eight different times after rainfall. The characterization of the leachate shows that they were sourced from an old landfill. The highest concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the most polluted leachate samples were 392 mg/L, 203 mg/L and 5090 mg/L respectively. The levels of Fe, Pb, Cu and Zn were 19.7 mg/L, 2.06 mg/L, 2.18 mg/L and 3.50 mg/L respectively. Three different coagulants: ferric chloride, ferrous sulphate and aluminium sulphate were used to treat the most polluted leachate sample. Different pH and concentrations were investigated to obtain the optimal dosage for the most effective coagulant. The experimental results showed that at a neutral pH, 96% COD, 66.2% Fe, 94.3% Zn reductions were achieved at the lowest concentration of 1000 mg/L of Al2SO4.14H2O while FeCl3 and FeSO4 gave <96% reduction at a high concentration of 25,000 mg/L. The pH of 3, 5, 9 and 11 at optimal dosage of Al2SO4.14H2O gave 14%, 78%, 82%, 88% reduction of COD respectively. The result therefore indicates that Al2SO4.14H2O is the most effective of the three coagulants with optimal pH and dosage of 7 and 1000 mg/L respectively.
- ItemOpen AccessTool-chip Contact Length and Feed Influence on Cutting Force(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2015) Ojolo, S.JThis paper investigates the influence of cutting process parameters such as feed, cutting speed, depth of cut and tool-chip contact length on resultant force during machining of mild steel and aluminium alloys. Forty experiments were carried out on aluminium and mild steel alloys based on cutting parameters (feed rate, cutting speed and depth of cut). Experimental procedure invovoles measuring the lengths of chips that slide on the tool face (tool-chip contact length) at various combinations of cutting parameters. Results indicate that as the resultant force increased from 583N to 2037N at constant depth of cut (0.10mm) and cutting speed (47m/min), the contact length increased from 0.08mm to 0.58mm for Aluminium alloys. At higher cutting speed of 71m/min and 0.20mm depth of cut, lower force of 594N to 1483N was recorded giving rise to increased contact length of 0.62mm to 0.86mm. Higher values of contact length (0.08mm to 0.74mm) are obtained for mild steel as the resultant force increased from 1079N to 3111N at the same cutting conditions for aluminium. At higher cutting speed of 71m/min and 0.20mm depth of cut, lower force of 854N to 2193N were obtained for mild steel with contact length increasing from 0.78mm to 0.95mm. Therefore, tool-chip contact length decreases as feed rate increases and mild steel gives higher cutting force in machining process than aluminium alloys under the same cutting conditions. Keywords: ; depth of cut; cutting speed; machining; contact length