Browsing UNILAG Journal of Medicine, Science & Technology by Title
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- ItemOpen AccessAcute Toxicity of Agrochemicals and Detergent on Tadpoles of the Common African Toad amietophrynus regularis(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2015) Onadeko, A.B; Amaeze, N.H; Favour, N.EFull texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessAnti-Inflammatory Activity of Aqaeous Leaf Extract of Brassica Oleraceae, Linn Var.DC (brassicaccae)(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2015) Agbaje, E.O; Fageyinbo, M.S; Idowu, A.OFull texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessAssessing Susceptibility to Chromium Carbide Precipitation in Cr-Mn Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2017) Amuda, M.O; Enumah, K.S; Onitiri, M.A; Osoba, L.OChromium-manganese austenitic stainless steel is a low cost grade with metallurgical and mechanical properties approximating a standard nickel-chromium austenitic stainless steel. It serves as a good substitute to the standard nickel-chromium grade owing to the high cost of nickel. But, there is little information on its weldability particularly the influence of welding parameters on chromium carbide precipitation in the heat affected zone. This limits its structural application through fusion welding. Therefore, in this paper, carbide precipitation in chromium-manganese austenitic stainless steel welds was investigated in the heat input range 180 - 300 J/mm under different combinations of arc current and welding speeds. Microstructural analysis after 10% oxalic acid electrolytic etch revealed that increasing heat input produced significant changes in microstructure of the welds with wider sensitized structure at heat input greater than 206 J/mm. Microstructure of welds produced at heat input lower than 206 J/mm was free of chromium carbide precipitation. This level of heat input which corresponds to arc current of 110 -125A and welding speeds in the range 319- 395 mm/min show that sensitized region associated with chromium carbide precipitation can be safely avoided during fusion welding of this grade of austenitic stainless steel through carefully selected welding parameters.
- ItemOpen AccessAssessment of Nequick Model at Lagos, Nigeria using GPS TEC(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Adewale, A.O; Migoya Orue, Y.O; Oyeyemi, E.OFull texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessClient Satisfaction and Quality of Family Planning Services: a Comparative Study of Public and Private Facilities in Lagos, Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Udom, C.F; Okafor, I.P; Abiola, A.OClient satisfaction and quality of care of family planning services affect contraceptive uptake and continued usage of method. The study aimed to determine and compare client satisfaction with quality of family planning services between public and private health facilities in an urban area of Lagos, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among consecutively recruited 240 women accessing family planning services in July 2013 at public and private health facilities (120 per facility). Data collection was done with exit interview, client-provider interaction and facility audit questionnaires from measure evaluation. Data was analyzed with epi-info and level of significance was set at 5% (p<0.05). Major findings include: (public vs private) mean age was 35.5±5.5 years vs 37.9±7.5 years; mean waiting time (minutes), 24.8±11.7 vs 48.7±17.8 (p<0.001). Statistically significant differences were observed in perceived long waiting time, (12.5%, 15/120) vs (30%, 36/120) (p<0.001); active participation, (95.8%, 115/120) vs (100%, 120/120) (p=0.020); client received method of choice, (66.3%, 56/80) vs (72.3, 60/83) (p=0.010). Overall, private provider clients were better satisfied with services (93%, 112/120) than clients in the public facility (88%, 105/120) (p <0.001). The private provider clients were better satisfied with services. Training of public providers on interpersonal relationship, counseling and communication skills is recommended. Private providers should implement strategies to reduce waiting time.
- ItemOpen AccessComparative Investigation of Orange Juice and Vitamin C on Gene Expression in Neuronal Tissues of Sprague Dawley Rats(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Ebuchi, O.A; Salami, Y; James, A.B; Mgbeadichie, I.NFull Texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessComparative Micro-anatomical Studies of the Wood of two Species of Okra [Abelmoschus Species](University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Osawaru, M.E; Aiwansoba, R.O; Ogwu, M.COkra belongs to the family Malvaceae. Common edible species are either Abelmoschus caillei [A. Chev.] Stevels or A. esculentus Moench. Seeds of the two species were obtained from the Gene bank of National Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Ibadan, Nigeria. This study anatomically investigated the accessions to determine their distinctiveness and assess their level of diversity. Field trials were conducted at the University of Benin, Nigeria. The main stem from tagged point at seven weeks interval at three points were investigated from three dimensional views (transverse, radial and tangential section). Using light microscopy, the nature and composition of the wood were determined from the macerated part. Twenty random fibers were measured from each representative sample slide. The occurrence of the growth rings were consistent in both species showing ring porous arrangements. The vessels in A. esculentus were solitary and short radial multiples in arrangement and A. caillei were short radial multiples and irregular clusters in arrangement but both species had mainly simple perforation vessels. More so, the distribution of axial parenchyma was of paratracheal orientation. A. caillei had wide and high multiseriate rays while in A. esculentus only high multiseriate rays were observed. There was a reduction in vessel diameter and fiber length across the age in both species. Fiber diameter, fiber lumen and fiber cell wall showed different degree of fluctuations with age in both species. The study suggests that age may significantly influence anatomical characters of both species.
- ItemOpen AccessComparative Study of some Aspects of Biology of Three Mangrove Crabs from the Mangrove Wetland of Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2015) Lawal-Are, A.O; Gbewa, M.TFull texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessComposition and Abundance of Odonates at Alatori Stream South-West, Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Adu, B.W; Kemabonta, K.A; Ogbogu, S.SDragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) are sensitive to human disturbance both as adults that are on wings and as larvae that are aquatic. This attribute suggests their usage as assessment tool for determination of human disturbance within the ecosystem. Alatori stream in Akure Forest Reserve was studied from May 2008 to April 2010 in order to determine the water quality and abundance of Odonata species of the stream. Adults and larvae specimens were sampled throughout the sampling period. A total of 767 adult specimens and 108 larvae were collected. Only 45.4% of the penultimate and ultimate larvae collected eclosed (emerged) to teneral adults. The composition of Odonata families occurring at the stream showed that Libellulidae was the highest (281) followed by Chlorocyphidae (158) while the lowest was Megapodagrionidae (5). The occurrence of members of the families Megapodagrionidae, Chlorocyphidae and Calopterigididae indicates that the stream ecosystem can sustain species with narrow niches. Seven physico-chemical variables: temperature (water and ambient), pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, water current velocity and depth of the stream were examined and analysed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) result revealed that conductivity, temperature and water depth played a major role in determining the community structure of odonate assemblage in the stream. The mean (±) standard deviation of electrical conductivity (184.25 ± 6.37μS/cm) of the water was indicative of an unpolluted freshwater system with stable habitat structure. The study suggests that the water quality of Alatori stream is healthy and can sustain Odonata and other fauna within the ecosystem.
- ItemOpen AccessConcurrent Intestinal Parasitoses with Cryptosporidium Species among Parasites with Gastrointestinal Disorder in Lagos, Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Ojuromi, O.T; Oyibo, W.A; Oladosu, O.O; Fagbenro-Beyioku, A.F; Ibidapo, C.A; Opedun, D.O; Uhoegbu, O.UFull Texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessCorrosion Characteristics of Rebar and Fibre Reinforced Concretes in Selected Environments(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2017) Amuda, M.O; Ameh, D; Salako, O.A; Adeyemi, O.OThe corrosion characteristics of rebar and fibres reinforced concretes in selected aggressive environments were investigated. Steel rebar and different fibre materials consisting of steel fibre, coconut fibre, glass fibre, and polymer fibre were used as reinforcements. Corrosion characteristics of these reinforced concretes were evaluated using visual inspection, compressive strength test and accelerated impressed current technique in 3.5wt% NaCl. Analysis of the results indicated that concrete reinforced with polymer and steel fibres after corrosion exposure exhibited lower reduction in compressive strength at 10%, 17%, respectively compared to conventional rebar concrete which had a loss of about 20% across the selected environments; whereas strength loss averaged 44% and 28% in concretes reinforced with coconut and glass fibres, respectively. The findings from this investigation suggested that steel and/or polymer fibres are suitable substitute for rebar in reinforcing concrete.
- ItemOpen AccessCytogenetic Evaluation of Microsporocytes of Setcreasea Purpurea (Boom) Flower(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2017) Sifau, M.O.; Adekoya, K.O.; Oboh, B.O.; Williams, G.O.Setcreasea purpurea Boom (Wandering Jews) belongs to the family Commelinaceae of the order Commelinales. The family, made up of 38 genera and about 600 species, occurs mostly in the tropical and warm regions of the world. Many are popular as garden or house ornamentals. It is a flower-bearing plant yet it is mostly propagated vegetatively due to the formation of sterile pollen grains thereby making pollination impossible. Cytogenetic study was carried out to observe the chromosome behaviour in the microsporocytes during meiosis with the aim of understanding the reasons behind the sterility of the pollen grains. Immature flower buds of Setcreasea purpurea were dissected in a Petri dish containing tap water. The microsporocytes were squashed using lactic acetic-orcein stain. Most microsporocytes observed from slides contained 12 bivalents. However, a few contained 10 bivalents and one quadrivalent or 8 bivalents and 2 quadrivalents. This shows that 2n = 24 in the microsporocytes. Other irregularities observed included laggards, abnormal disjunction, chromosome bridges and chromosome fragments all at anaphase-1 and micronuclei at telophase-1. Occurrence of laggards, chromosome bridge formation and micronuclei were low ranging from 1 to 3 in the population of S. purpurea studied. The consequence of these irregular chromosomes is their loss and non-inclusion in the daughter nuclei at telophase-I. The loss of these segments would result in loss of genes on them resulting in the unviable microspores at the end of meiosis. These microspores are the pollen grains in which a large number of them (about 90%) have been found to be sterile thereby making the plant to reproduce asexually by stem-tip cuttings.
- ItemOpen AccessDeformation Behaviour of Led and Hiled Cured Dental Resin Microhybrid and Nanofilled Composites(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Adeleye, O.A; Fakinlede, O.A; Ajiboye, J.S; Adegbulugbe, I.CThe deformation behavior of commercial microhybridresin based composite (20/20 composite) and nanofilled composite (Light Cured Universal Composite) cured with the conventional Light Emitting Diode (LED) and exponential Light Emitting Diode (HiLED) under various loading condition have been investigated. Deformation of restorations such as shrinkage and shearing from curing and mastication have been a major concern for clinicians because of void and crack formations in restored tooth structure which affects the mechanical properties of the resin composites. Samples of microhybridresin based composite (20/20 composite) and nanofilled composite (Light Cured Universal Composite) were molded with copper foil molds with standard dimension 2 x 2.5 x 8mm, photo-cured by both conventional Light Emitting Diode (LED) and exponential Light Emitting Diode (HiLED) and then tested on the Electro Force 3200 for their deformation behavior and mechanical properties. Effects of variation of strain rate and curing time were also investigated. The results showed that, out of the four groups of samples studied, microhybridresin based composite (20/20 composite) cured with exponential Light Emitting Diode (HiLED) exhibited highest tensile strength of 28 MPa. The loading and unloading of the samples exhibited hysteresis responses and path dependence nonlinear behavior. At stress values less than 4 MPa, rate dependent recoverable (viscoelasticity) deformation was observed in all the four groups of samples but at stress values beyond 4 MPa rate dependent irrecoverable (viscoplasticity) deformation was observed. Finally, it was observed that increasing curing time leads to increasing tensile strength for materials cured by both methods.
- ItemOpen AccessDesign and Optimization of a Water Cooled Antenna for Microwave Ablation using Finite Element Method(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Adeneye, S.O; Ibitoye, Z.A; Akpochafor, M.O; Aweda, M.A; Ajekigbe, A.TMicrowave ablation is a technique for treating cancerous tissues with the application of heat. Some tumors are located such that they cannot be successfully treated with conventional external radiation beam techniques. Microwave ablation is currently an alternative option being considered for the treatment of unresectable tumors. In this study, we designed a water cooled microwave antenna for tumor ablation. The water cooled antenna for hepatic microwave ablation was designed using Finite Element Methods (FEMs) (COMSOL MULTIPHYSICSTM version 4.4). Finite element methods were used to study the electromagnetic (EM) field and thermal distributions in liver. The water slot position, water slot length and the antenna slot length, from the tip of the antenna (z = 0 mm) were varied within the ranges (43 ≤ z ≤ 60 mm), (1 ≤ z ≤10.5 mm) and (1 ≤ z ≤ 20 mm) at 1 mm, 0.5 mm and 0.5 mm interval respectively, at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The design has reflection coefficient of -25.5dB, with 94.0% power dissipation into the tissue. Experimental validation shows that the inclusion of a cooling unit reduces the backward heating and increases the power deposition into liver tissue.
- ItemOpen AccessDevelopment and Evaluation of a New Instrument to Quantify the Deep Tendon Reflex in the Adult and Elderly(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016)Introduction: Deep tendon reflex (DTR) is routinely used to evaluate the nervous system. Majority of the available devices to measure DTR response are not easily accessible, highly cumbersome, and capital intensive. This study sought to develop and evaluate a less cumbersome, cost effective and easily accessible instrument that can objectively quantify DTR. Materials and Methods: A simple DTR device was fabricated and then evaluated. A total of 74apparently healthy individuals and five hemiplegic patients participated in this cross-sectional analytical study. Hemiplegic participants were to determine the criterion-related validity of the device. Of the apparently healthy participants, 69were assigned into three groups according to their age. Angle of knee excursion (patellar DTR response) was measured using the newly developed DTR device. Jendrassik maneuver was introduced in participants who failed to respond to the initial patellar tendon tapping.Pearson correlation was used to determine relationship between variables at P <0.05. Result: The device demonstrated good face and criterion-related validity coupled with high test-retest and inter-rater reliability with coefficient of 0.74 and 0.86 respectively. There was no significant difference between the patellar tendon response for the right and left lower limbs.(p>0.05).Similarly, sex and age has no significant effect on the patellar tendon reflex response respectively (p>0.05). Conclusion: The newly developed instrument is less expensive and less cumbersome, and was found to be valid. Findings of the study are comparable with previous study that age, sex, and handedness had no significant effects on DTR response. It is therefore recommended for the use of clinicians.
- ItemOpen AccessDevelopment of a Faster Technique for the Speciation of Potentially Toxic Metals in soil(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Oyeyiola, A.O; Hamed, M.O; Odujebe, F.O; Olayinka, K.O; Alo, B.IFull texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessDistribution of Heavy Metals Contaminants in Surface Soil, Water, Liver, Heart and Kidney of Amphibians PtychadenapumilioAND Amietophrynusmaculatus in Selected Areas of Lagos State(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2015) Onadeko, A.B; Osuala, F.IThe increasing rate of pollution necessitates proper and effective management of environmental health by monitoring the soil, water and animal components of the environment. The study investigated distribution of selected heavy metals contaminants in soil, water samples and bioaccumulation in heart, liver and kidney of two amphibian species, Amietophrynusmaculatus and Ptychadenapumilio in selected sites such as Ibafo (bordering Lagos and Ogun States), Iwaya, Makoko 1, Makoko 2 and University of Lagos (Unilag) located in Lagos state. Heavy metals were analyzed using the Analyst 200 Perkin Elmer series of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The overall mean concentrations of the heavy metals (mg/g) in the soil samples were as follows: Fe 3.12, Cu 0.41, Ni 0.30, Cr 0.05, Cd 0.07, Pb 0.04, Zn 0.19 and Mn 0.39 thus Fe > Cu >Mn> Ni > Zn > Cd > Cr >Pb which were significantly (P < 0.05) different across the sites except for Mn, which was not significantly (P > 0.05) different (df = 4, x2 = 2.739). In water samples, the mean concentrations (mg/L) were as follows: Fe 1.80, Cu 0.74, Ni 0.78, Cr 0.06, Cd 0.05, Pb 0.03, Zn 0.54 and Mn 0.30. Zinc bioaccumulated highest in both species and in all the locations, followed by Mn and Pb. Mn, Zn and Pb concentrated more in the liver, while Ni was highest in the heart, not significantly (P > 0.05) different in both anuran species. Cr concentration in the liver of both anuran species was significantly (P < 0.05) different (df = 8, x2 = 2.717). The study has revealed the prevailing environmental health with anurans as excellent bioindicators acting as an early warning signal of potential harm to the environment.
- ItemOpen AccessDominant Pollen in Honey Samples from Four Beehives in Abeokuta, Southwest, Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Adekanmbi, H.O; Alebiosu, O.SIn the quest to examine the preferentially foraged pollen by honey bees in Abeokuta, Nigeria, a palynological study was conducted on honey samples from four bee farms; Owudekudu, Olorunda, Agbede and Odeda, all situated within Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Honey samples were collected and subjected to acetolysis, followed by slide preparation and microscopy of the treated samples. Twelve pollen types were recovered from the four honey samples and some of these pollen are common to the four honeys. A classification method for expressing pollen frequency class was adopted: Very frequent (Over 45%), Frequent (16-45%), Rare (3-15%) and Sporadic (Less than 3%). The most abundantly recovered pollen grains in the four locations were those of Berlinia grandiflora, Albizia sp., Bombax buonopozense, Asteraceae and Fabaceae. Pollen of Elaeis guineensis, Rutaceae, Amaranthaceae, Combretaceae/Melastomaceae, Senna sp., Poaceae and Convolvulaceae were also recovered. The results of this study indicate that these plants were preferentially foraged by honey bees in the sample locations. This might have been influenced by more suitable nutritional contents of these pollen grains produced by their parent plants, although yet to be investigated. Hence, there is need for an appropriate conservation strategy of these plants from destructive human activities such as indiscriminate felling of trees and forest clearing for agricultural and urban developmental projects. The results from this work have established these plants as preferential to bee forage in Nigeria.
- ItemOpen AccessDynamic Response of microbial System of Selected Communities in the Rivers State to Crude Oil (Hydrocarbons) Pollution(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Olanipekun, O.O; Ogunbayo, A.O; Nwachukwu, S.C.U; Bello, R.AThe activity of indigenous microbial system is a required tool to remediate an environment that has been contaminated by hydrocarbons. This work deals with the dynamic response to crude oil contaminants of undefined microbial systems in three selected communities of the Rivers State of Nigeria. The activities of indigenous (undefined) consortia were studied and compared using Respiratory technique. The soil samples were incubated with 2 % (𝑣𝑣⁄)crude oil in mineral salt medium at 37 oC in three phases of two weeks in a shake flask at 150 rpm. At the end of the last phase, components of the crude oil degraded by the undefined consortia in the soils were identified with the gas chromatographic techniques. The results obtained showed that the consortia from the different soil samples exhibited different degrees of capacities to degrade the crude oil. On the whole, 50.00 to 85.70 % of hydrocarbon components of the crude oil were degraded thus making the areas potentially suitable for in-situ bioremediation. The study has shown that the obtained microbiological characteristics and activities of the soils are adequate for bioremediation technologies.
- ItemOpen AccessDyslipidemia Profile of Type 2 Diabetic Patients attending Staff Hospital in Ilaro, Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Adedoja, D.W; AbduFattah, A; Yusuf, M.IDyslipidemia is a common feature of diabetic patients, and this condition is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The dyslipidemia patterns were investigated in diabetic patients undergoing medical and dietary treatment. Diabetic patients attending the Diabetes Clinic in State Hospital, Ilaro, Nigeria were recruited into the study after their informed consent. Both anthropometric and biochemical analysis was conducted. Both diabetic normotensive (DBN) and diabetic hypertensive (DBH) subjects had significantly reduced (p < 0.05) plasma phospholipids and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), as well as significantly increased (p < 0.05) concentration of plasma glucose and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared to the non-diabetic subjects. Atherogenic indices (LDL-C/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C) were also significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in the diabetic subjects compared to the other groups. This study suggests that dyslipidemia occurred in these diabetic patients due to complications from diabetes mellitus, and this may predispose them to cardivascular diseases like atherosclerosis.