Pattern of Blood Donation and Transfusion Transmissible Infections in a Hospital-Based Blood Transfusion Service in Lagos, Nigeria

Ogbenna, A.A ; Adewoyin, S.A ; Famuyiwa, C.O ; Oyewole, K.M ; Oyedeji, O.A ; Akanmu, A.S (2021)

Scholarly article

Article

BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion therapy remains a mainstay in the care of many tropical diseases. Blood supply in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Nigeria is still a challenge in terms of perennial blood shortages and transfusion transmissible infections (TTI). This study aimed to describe blood donation patterns and compare the rates of TTIs among types of blood donors seen at LUTH. STUDY METHOD: A 6-year retrospective review of data on donor types and pattern of TTIs at LUTH transfusion service. TTI rates and odd ratios (OR) of TTI positivity amongst VNRD versus FRD were computed at 95% confidence intervals. Proportion of TTI sero-positivity was also compared between the VNRD and FRD groups. RESULTS: A total of 53,319 blood donors were observed over the study period, with average of 8886.5 donors per year. VNRDs accounted for 12.3% (6533/53,319), while FRDs accounted for 87.7% (46,789/53,319) of all donors. The proportion of VNRDs ranged from 5.1% to 20.8%. The overall prevalence of TTIs over the 6-year period for all donors was 1.34% for HIV, 5.79% for HBV, 2.23% for HCV and 0.88% for syphilis. Sero-positivity rates for HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis was statistically significantly lower among VNRD compared to FRDs. CONCLUSION: There exists a lot of room for improvement in our blood donation practices to improve blood stock and transfusion safety. A more aggressive strategic effort needs to be directed towards achieving a target of 100% voluntary blood donor base through partnerships, advocacy, more financing and resource allocation, and other proven initiatives.