Now showing 1 - 5 of 68
- ItemOpen AccessEpidemiological Determinants of Entamoeba histolytica and Schistosoma spp. Infections in Selected Communities in Ijebu-East Local Government Area of Ogun State.(Cairo: Ain Shams University Faculty of Science Department of Entomology, 2022-07-20) Akinsanya B.; Okonofua C.C.; Oluwole A.A.; Adubi T.O.; Adeyemi O.O.Amoebiasis and schistosomiasis remain major public health problems in poor, developing countries with poor sanitary and water infrastructure. Disease surveillance provides necessary data for intervention programs. This study, therefore, determined the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and Schistosoma spp. and assessed associated risk factors in selected communities in the Ijebu-East Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Urine and stool samples were randomly collected from 123 people living in five communities in the study area. Stool samples were subjected to the Kato-katz method for the detection of E. histolytica cysts and Schistosoma ova. Urine samples were examined by filtration technique for the presence of S. haematobium eggs. Demographic and socio-economic data, and knowledge, attitude and perceptions of subjects to infection were assessed using a standard questionnaire.Results: The study revealed that only 7(5.7%) of the 123 study participants were infected with E. histolytica. Females (8.3%) were more infected than males (1.96%) (p>0.05), and the age group >51 years had the least prevalence (p>0.05) of E. histolytica infection. None of the assessed risk factors were significantly associated with infection. However, subjects that had watery stools had a significantly higher prevalence of infection (P<0.05). Schistosoma spp. infections were not detected in this study, but respondents’ frequent contact with water bodies in their communities was shown. Conclusions: This study confirmed the presence of E. histolytica infection in Ijebu-East LGA, although at low prevalence. Health education is imperative to improve personal hygiene practices and prevent the transmission of these infections in the study area.
- ItemOpen AccessExploring the genetic diversity of Eimeria acervulina: A polymerase chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) approach(Veterinary Parasitology, 2023-08-20) Adeyemi O.; Quill A.; Morikone M.; Evans L.; Formoy C.; Idowu E.T.; Akinsanya B.; Jatau I.D.; Blake D.P.Eimeria, protozoan parasites that can cause the disease coccidiosis, pose a persistent challenge to poultry production and welfare. Control is commonly achieved using good husbandry supplemented with routine chemoprophylaxis and/or live parasite vaccination, although widespread drug resistance and challenges to vaccine supply or cost can prove limiting. Extensive effort has been applied to develop subunit anticoccidial vaccines as scalable, cost-effective alternatives, but translation to the field will require a robust understanding of parasite diversity. Using a new Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) panel we begin to describe the genetic diversity of Eimeria acervulina populations in Africa and Europe. PCR-RFLP genotyping E. acervulina populations sampled from commercial broiler and layer chickens reared in Nigeria or the United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (RoI) revealed comparable levels of haplotype diversity, in direct contrast to previous descriptions from the close relative E. tenella. Here, 25 distinct PCR-RFLP haplotypes were detected from a panel of 42 E. acervulina samples, including 0.7 and 0.5 haplotypes per sample in Nigeria (n = 20) and the UK/RoI (n = 14), respectively. All but six haplotypes were found to be country-specific. The PCRRFLP markers immune mapped protein 1 (IMP1) and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) were most informative for Nigerian E. acervulina, while microneme protein 3 (MIC3) and HSP90 were most informative in UK/RoI populations. High haplotype diversity within E. acervulina populations may indicate frequent genetic exchange and potential for rapid dissemination of genetic material associated with escape from selective barriers such as anticoccidial drugs and future subunit vaccines.
- ItemOpen AccessKnowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Poultry Farmers Regarding the Control of Chicken Coccidiosis in Lagos State, Nigeria(Pan African Journal of Life Sciences, 2023-04-21) Adeyemi O.O.; Idowu E.T.; Akinsanya B.; Jatau I.D.Background: Coccidiosis, caused by coccidia of the genus Eimeria, accounts for significant production loss-es in the global poultry industry. This study evaluated commercial poultry farmers' knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAPs) on chicken coccidiosis and its control in Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods: Semi-structured questionnaires assessing KAPs relating to chicken coccidiosis and its control were administered to 157 poultry farmers. Summary statistics were performed on the collated data using the Statis-tical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The relationship between respondents’ knowledge and demographic features was analysed using the Chi-square test of independence on SPSS. Results were consid-ered significant at p < 0.05. Results: The majority of the respondents were males (91, 58%), married (108, 68.7%), and between 31 and 50 years old (106, 67.5%). Most have had tertiary education (84, 53.5%) and farming experience between 1 and 5 years (97, 61.8%). All the respondents have heard about coccidiosis previously, and of these, 57 (36.3%), 45 (28.7%), and 37 (23.6%) sourced this information from veterinarians, fellow farmers, and during training/workshops, respectively. Ingestion of faecally contaminated feed and water by chickens was opined as the cause of coccidiosis by 48 (30.6%) respondents, followed by bacteria (30, 19.1%) and poor hygiene and sanitation (27, 17.2%). Most mentioned that ingesting faecally contaminated feed and water (126, 80.2%) is the mode of coccidiosis transmission, and 76 (48.4%) identified bloody and watery diarrhea as the major clinical sign. The gender of the farmers and their educational status were significantly associated with the level of coccidiosis knowledge. Of the study participants, 150 (95.5%) have experienced an outbreak of coccidiosis on their farms before, and the majority observed bloody diarrhea (90, 60.0%) as the major clinical sign. None of the farmers used ionophore drugs. Embazin-forte® (Sulphaquinoxaline) was the drug most reportedly used to prevent and treat coccidiosis. Few farmers (11, 7%) adopted anticoccidial vaccines for coccidiosis prevention using either Immucox®, Livacox®, or both. Conclusion: This study showed that poultry farmers in Lagos State have adequate knowledge of chicken coccidiosis. Chemical anticoccidials were the only drugs used for prevention and treatment, and vaccines were not adopted. There is a need for veterinarians and poultry extension workers to enlighten farmers in the study area about the proper, safe, and effective use of anticoccidial drugs and vaccines.
- ItemOpen AccessPlastic pollution in the environment in Nigeria: a rapid systematic review of the sources, distribution, research gaps and policy needs(Elsevier, 2022-05-18) Yalwaji, B; John-Nwagwu, H.O; Sogbanmu, T.OPlastic are emerging pollutants requiring urgent intervention for its management. In African countries like Nigeria, the evidence to inform plastic pollution management is scanty. This rapid review aimed to systematically evaluate evidence on the distribution, sources, biological effects, research gaps and policy needs of plastic pollution in various environmental matrices in Nigeria. Peer-reviewed journal articles on nano-, micro-, meso- and macroplastics contamination of water, sediment, air, soil and biota were accessed from PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct. They were screened, comprehensively revised and critically appraised for inclusion, data extraction and evidence synthesis. A total of 358,974 articles were accessed from any publication date up till May 30, 2021. Only 34 articles met the inclusion criteria and critical appraisal. Only 26 of the included studies reported the distribution, levels and/or effects of microplastics (MPs) (n = 12), macroplastics (n = 12) or both (n = 2) in water, sediment, biota, food and/or land. Only 15 of the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory had any data on micro- and/or macroplastics. Macroplastics from land-based sources were mainly reported from educational institutions, residential areas and markets. Plastic sources reported were tire wear, cigarette butts, fishing ropes and gears, plastic bags, water sachets and e-wastes. Biological effects (oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, reduced plant root biomass) of virgin MPs were reported in crab, African catfish and lime tree only in laboratory experiments. Microplastic data in biota were limited to selected fish species, aquatic insects and gastropods. Only one (1) study on plastics in waterbodies in Northern Nigeria (Kogi State) was found. Research gaps on plastic distribution in terrestrial biota, other aquatic biota, soil, air, ground and potable water sources as well as biological effects were identified. Policy needs for plastic pollution management identified include stakeholder education, polymer replacement, recycling, tax and incentives to support the sustainability of life below water and on land (UN SDGs 14 and 15).
- ItemOpen AccessAnalysis of bacterial composition in slaughterhouse effluent from a major livestock market in Nigeria(University of Tripoli, 2023-06-03) Buraimoh, O.M; Odumosu, B.T; Sogbanmu, T.O; Ojo-Omoniyi, O.A; Afolabi, O; Akerele, OEffluent discharges are point sources of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Effluents from slaughterhouses which are often discharged untreated into the receiving ecosystem with potential adverse impacts on the ecosystem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bacterial community profile of slaughterhouse effluent from a major livestock market in Ogun state, South-West Nigeria. The community DNA was extracted and subsequently sequenced using the illumina platform. The top (5) bacterial phyla accounting for over 94.6% of the sequences in the effluent was dominated by Firmicutes (67%) and the least was Euryarchaeota (3.2%). The top five (5) classes were Clostridia (62.11%), Bacteroidia (15.93%), Bacilli (3.97%), Actinobacteria (3.05%) and Methanobacteria (2.95%). The most abundant orders were Clostridiales (62.10%) Bacteroidales (15.90%), Lactobacillales (3.00%), Actinomyctes (2.70%) and Burkholderiales (1.50%). 52 genera were identified (29.60%) while unclassified genera were 65.90%. The results reveal the bacterial community profile of the effluent constituting genera of pathogenic, biotechnological, environmental, veterinary, and public health importance such as Butyrivibrio, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Prevotella, Desulfovibrio, Rhodobacter, among others. The results are of importance for holistic ecological and human health risk assessments as well as targeted interventions and proper treatment of the effluent before discharge. This will support good health and wellbeing, promote clean water and sanitation, as well as sustain life below water; relevant to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 3, 6 and 14 respectively.