Community Health and Primary Care- Scholarly Publications
Permanent URI for this collection
Now showing 1 - 5 of 227
- ItemOpen AccessMale involvement in female partners’ screening for breast and cervical cancers in Southwest Nigeria(2023) Okafor I.P; Kukoyi F.O; Kanma-Okafor O.J; Izuka M.OBackground Breast and cervical cancers are in the top 10 most common cancers in women globally and the most common cancers in Nigerian women. The incidences have been rising steadily over the years. Involvement of men as key players in reproductive health issues has been receiving global attention especially in low and middle-income countries Aim To assess male involvement in their female partners’ screening for breast and cervical cancers in Southwest, Nigeria. Method This was a community-based, cross-sectional study that employed a multi-stage sampling method to select 254 men who were married or in steady relationships in Lagos State, Southwest Nigeria. Data were collected from June to October 2018 using a semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.1 and summarized with mean and standard deviation. Chi-square test was used for bivariate statistics, and the p-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Multivariable logistic regression was used for predictor variables of male involvement in screening. Results 29.5% of the respondents had good knowledge of breast and cervical cancers and screening and majority (85.5%) had a positive attitude towards screening. Only few, 19.3% and 15.7% had provided money for breast and cervical cancer screening respectively. Most men, 75% and 87.4% respectively had not accompanied their wife/female partner for breast and cervical cancer screening, while almost half (49.2%) and one-third (33.5%) respectively, had encouraged their female partners to screen for breast and cervical cancers. Overall, only about half, 138 (54.3%) of the men were considered ‘involved’ in their female partners’ screening for breast and cervical cancers. Male involvement was significantly associated with screening for female cancers (χ2 = 77.62, p = 0.001). Older age group (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.3–4.9), higher educational attainment (AOR = 3.51, 95% CI: 1.14–10.73), and positive attitude (AOR = 2.48, 95% CI:1.16–5.33) were found to be the predictors of male involvement. Conclusion Community-based programs for males, especially the younger and less educated, should be implemented to increase their involvement. It is also suggested that mass media messages be spread and online platforms be explored in order to increase men’s awareness and participation in female cancer screening.
- ItemOpen AccessNutritional status of under-five children living in orphanages compared with their counterparts living with their families in host communities in Lagos State.(2021) Izuka, M.O.; Olatona, F.A.; Adeniyi, O.F.; Onajole, A.T.Background: The prevalence of malnutrition in Nigerian orphanages is not clearly defined despite the high burden. This study was conducted to determine and compare the nutritional status of children living in orphanages and children living in the host communities. Methods: It was a comparative cross-sectional study. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 180 under-five children each from orphanages and host communities. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain data on socio-demographic characteristics and nutrient intake. Weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and nutrient intake were assessed following standard procedures. SPSS (version 20.0) was used for data entry and analysis. Association between variables was determined using Chi-square, t-test or Fisher’s exact tests and level of significance were set at p < 0.05. Result: The mean age of the children in orphanages was 38.5 months while that of the children in the host communities was 38.3 months. Wasting and over-nutrition were significantly lower among children living in orphanages compared with those living in the host communities, (5.6% versus 14.4%, p=0.006) and (5.6% versus 13.9%, p=0.008), respectively. The proportion of children living in orphanages who met the Recommended Dietary Allowance for proteins (95%) was significantly higher than those in the host communities (88.9%), (p=0.033). Conclusion: The nutritional status of children living in the orphanages was better than that of the children living in their host communities. More interventions on feeding infant and young children are needed in communities in Lagos State to ensure better nutritional status.
- ItemOpen AccessInvestigating Male Tobacco Use and Expenditure Patterns across Socio-Economic Groups in Nigeria(PLoS One., 2015-04-09) Uguru, NP; Mbachu, C; Ibe, OP; Uguru, CC; Odukoya, OO; Okwuosa, C; Onwujekwe, OThe magnitude of variation in economic costs of tobacco consumption among socio-economic status (SES) groups in Nigeria is unclear. Understanding the factors that influence tobacco use and expenditure among different socio-economic groups would inform decisions on interventions for tobacco control in Nigeria. Secondary data was obtained from the 2008 National demographic and health survey. Information on tobacco use and expenditure in households and individual males were extracted from the database. A total of 34,070 households and 15,846 individual males were sampled. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analysis. Information on wealth index obtained were categorized into socio-economic quintile groups (Q1 to Q5), representing poorest to richest socio-economic groups. To estimate expenditure on cigarettes, the average cost of a stick of cigarette was obtained and multiplied with the number of sticks smoked per day. The proportion of households that use tobacco in Nigeria is 5.25% with a greater percentage (89.6%) residing in the rural areas. Prevalence of cigarette smoking in individual males is 8.59%, and the poorer SES group smoked more cigarettes (20.9%) and spent more (0.60–1.19USD) than the richest SES group. Low education level, traditional beliefs, literacy levels, SES and employment status all influence cigarette smoking in adult males. Although poor people smoked more and spent more of their income on cigarettes, other factors like educational level and traditional beliefs were found to influence practice of cigarette smoking in men. This implies that tobacco control legislation through increased taxes alone may not effectively reduce the use of tobacco and its products in Nigeria. A consolidated approach that includes behavioral change procedures, enforcing bans on tobacco advertisement and the use of strong graphic anti-tobacco messages targeted at both the poor and rich as well as the educated and uneducated need to be effected to reduce tobacco use.
- ItemOpen AccessNeed to focus beyond the medical causes: a systematic review of the social factors affecting neonatal deaths.(2014) Upadhyay, RP; Krishnan, A; Rai, SK; Chinnakali, P; Odukoya, OOReducing the global total of 3.3 million neonatal deaths is crucial to meeting the fourth Millennium Development Goal. Until recently, attention has been on the medical causes of the neonatal deaths, while the social factors contextualising these deaths have largely remained unaddressed. The current review aimed to quantify the role of these factors in neonatal deaths. A systematic search was performed through PubMed, Google scholar, Cochrane library, Medline, IndMed, Embase, World Health Organization and Biomed central databases. Studies published from 1995 to 2011 were included. Random effects meta-analysis was performed to derive at an estimate of the burden of delays, as defined by the 'three delays model' by Thadeus and Maine. A total of 17 studies were reviewed. The majority of them (n = 10) were from the African continent. Level 3 delay, i.e. delay in receiving appropriate treatment upon reaching a health facility (38.7%, 95% CI, 21.7%-57.3%) and delay in deciding to seek care for the illness (Level 1 delay) (28%, 95% CI, 16%-43%) were the major contributors to neonatal deaths. Level 2 delay, i.e. delay in reaching a health facility (18.3%, 95% CI, 2.6-43.8%) contributed least to the neonatal deaths. Creating awareness among caregivers regarding early recognition and treatment seeking for neonatal illness along with improving the quality of neonatal care provided at the health facilities is essential to reduce neonatal mortality.
- ItemOpen AccessOutcomes of COVID-19 patients with comorbidities in southwest Nigeria(2021) Osibogun, A; Balogun, M; Abayomi, A; Idris, J; Kuyini, Y; Odukoya, O; et alBackground Data on the comorbidities that result in negative outcomes for people with COVID-19 are currently scarce for African populations. This study identifies comorbidities that predict death among a large sample of COVID-19 patients from Nigeria. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of medical records for 2184 laboratory confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Lagos, southwest Nigeria. Extracted data included age, sex, severity of condition at presentation and self-reported comorbidities. The outcomes of interest were death or discharge from facility. Results Most of the cases were male (65.8%) and the median age was 43 years (IQR: 33–55). Four hundred and ninety-two patients (22.5%) had at least one comorbidity and the most common amongst them were hypertension (74.2%) and diabetes (30.3%). The mortality rate was 3.3% and a significantly higher proportion of patients with comorbidities died compared to those with none. The comorbidities that predicted death were hypertension (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.22–4.01), diabetes (OR: 3.69, 95% CI: 1.99–6.85), renal disease (OR: 12.53, 95%CI: 1.97–79.56), cancer (OR: 14.12, 95% CI: 2.03–98.19) and HIV (OR: 1.77–84.15]. Conclusion Comorbidities are prevalent and the associated risk of death is high among COVID-19 patients in Lagos, Nigeria. Public enlightenment, early identification and targeted care for COVID-19 cases with comorbidities are recommended as the pandemic evolves.