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- ItemOpen AccessDevelopment and Comparison of Three Data Models for Predicting Diabetes Mellitus Using Risk Factors in a Nigerian Population(Korean Society of Medical Informatics, 2022-01) Odukoya, O.; Nwaneri, S.; Odeniyi, I.; Akodu, B.; Oluwole, E.; Olorunfemi, G.; Popoola, O.; Osuntoki, A.Objectives This study developed and compared the performance of three widely used predictive models—logistic regression (LR), artificial neural network (ANN), and decision tree (DT)—to predict diabetes mellitus using the socio-demographic, lifestyle, and physical attributes of a population of Nigerians. Methods We developed three predictive models using 10 input variables. Data preprocessing steps included the removal of missing values and outliers, min-max normalization, and feature extraction using principal component analysis. Data training and validation were accomplished using 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) were used as performance evaluation metrics. Analysis and model development were performed in R version 3.6.1. Results The mean age of the participants was 50.52 ± 16.14 years. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for LR were, respectively, 81.31%, 84.32%, 77.24%, 72.75%, and 82.49%. Those for ANN were 98.64%, 98.37%, 99.00%, 98.61%, and 98.83%, and those for DT were 99.05%, 99.76%, 98.08%, 98.77%, and 99.82%, respectively. The best-performing and poorest-performing classifiers were DT and LR, with 99.05% and 81.31% accuracy, respectively. Similarly, the DT algorithm achieved the best AUC value (0.992) compared to ANN (0.976) and LR (0.892). Conclusions Our study demonstrated that DT, LR, and ANN models can be used effectively for the prediction of diabetes mellitus in the Nigerian population based on certain risk factors. An overall comparative analysis of the models showed that the DT model performed better than LR and ANN.
- ItemOpen AccessA Low Cost IoT Based Neonatal Incubator for Resource Poor Settings(Faculty of Engineering, The University of the West Indies St Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies., 2020-07-31) Nwaneri, S.; Sojobi, J.W.; Oyelade, A.O.; Ezenwa, B.N.Preterm births in resource poor countries are characterised by high infant mortality. The high cost and non availability of conventional neonatal incubators are considered to significantly affect efforts aimed at mitigating this problem. In this paper, a low-cost Internet of Things (IoT) based neonatal incubator with phototherapy blanket ispresented. The device was constructed using a wooden box with a dimension of 33 × 20 × 18 inches, a heating element, a relay, a liquid crystal display (LCD) module, an l2C module, control buttons, a light emitting diode (LED), 220 Ω resistors, 5 volts’ power supply, transparent 2 mm thick acrylic sheet, a mattress, Wi-Fi module and LED based phototherapy blanket. An IoT platform was developed for real-time monitoring of temperature and humidity of the incubator which can be accessed by a password protected graphical user interface (GUI) application developed using C programing language. Modelling and simulation of the incubator environment based on standard thermodynamic principles were performed using Python programming language. A relatively stable temperature and humidity suitable for an infant was observed in the developed device. The IoT platform was effective in monitoring the temperature and humidity of the device. Incubator temperature attained steady state in 200 seconds. The environmental conditions were found to be suitable for a neonate. The device was effective for real-time monitoring of environmental conditions in the incubator
- ItemOpen AccessDesign and Construction of Improvised Mini-Blood Storage Refrigerator(Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Lagos, 2017-07-01) Nwaneri, S.Background: Domestic refrigerators and freezers are generally used for the storage of blood and blood components. In ruralareas, especially in low and medium income countries, there is need to develop low cost portable refrigerators for the storage ofblood. Objective: The objective of this study was to design and construct a low cost, portable blood storage refrigerator capable ofmaintaining the temperature range (2°C–6°C). Methods: The casing was constructed from a scrap microwave oven as the magnetron, transformer and other electronic componentswere removed in order to create a space to accommodate the compressor engine. The device comprised an electrically powered compressor, a condenser, a capillary tube or expansion valve, an evaporator, and a temperature regulator. The components were joined using gas welding. Blood was stored in the device for 7 days and the effectiveness of our device was tested by determining the viability of the stored blood. Results: The device maintained a steady temperature of 2ºC-6ºC with the capacity to store about 10 blood bags. Haematocrit level and haemoglobin concentrations were determined at storage and at the end of the device testing using the haematology analyzer. Both parameters showed only a slight reduction, which was still within the acceptable limits. The pre-storage haematocrit was 45% while post storage was 39% and the haemoglobin concentration which was 15 g/dl had reduced to 13 g/dl. Conclusion: The purpose-designed blood storage device was shown to be effective in the storage of blood.
- ItemOpen AccessFurther Study on Thermal Performance of Porous Fin with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Internal Heat Generation using Galerkin’s method of Weighted Residual(World Scientific News, WSN, 2019) Sobamowo, M.G; Kamiyo, O.M; Adeleye, O.AThis work is presented as a further study to our previous work, “Thermal performance analysis of a natural convection porous fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and internal heat" published in "Thermal Science and Engineering Progress. 1 (2017) 39–52”, where it was assumed that the surface convection is negligible and heat is transferred only by natural convection in the porous fin. In this present study, such an assumption has been relaxed. Also, effects of surface convective heat transfer on the thermal performance of porous fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and internal heat generation have been investigated using Galerkin’s method of weighted residual. The results of the Galerkin’s method of weighted residual show excellent agreement with the results of numerical method using shooting method coupled with Runge-Kutta method and also with the results of homotopy perturbation method. Thereafter, the developed analytical solutions are used to investigate the influences of the thermal model parameters on the thermal performance of the porous fin. It is found as the with the other model parameters that as the convective parameter increases, the rate of heat transfer from the base of the fin increases and consequently, the porous fin efficiency improves. However, increase in the nonlinear thermal conductivity parameter decreases the temperature distribution in the fin. Based on the high accuracy of the Galerkin’s method of weighted residual as displayed in this work, it is hoped that the simple analytical solutions given by the approximate analytical method will enhance the analysis of extended surfaces and also assist the designers.
- ItemOpen AccessDynamic Analysis of the Biomechanical Model of Head Load Impact Using Differential Transform Method(Journal of Applied and Computational Mechanics JACM,, 2019) Adeleye, O.A; Ipinnimo, O; Yinusa, A.A; Otobo, E.PThe dynamic analysis of the biomechanical model of the head load impact using the Differential Transform Method is presented in this paper. In many parts of the world, the problem of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) has led to neurodegenerative dementing disorders and diseases as a result of head load impact from sporting activities, accidents involving the head, etc. have serious effects on humanity. The head load impact and its control have been modeled as a rigid linkage head-neck manipulator. This rigid link manipulator is governed by a system of nonlinear ordinary differential matrix equations with three degrees of freedom which requires special techniques for its solution. The system of equations was solved using Differential Transform Method (DTM) and the results were compared with results obtained in earlier studies and validated with the fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical method (RK4). Good agreements are reached in all these results. From the model, the effects of head loads, head mass, neck mass, upper and lower linkage lengths, head and neck moments of inertia were investigated. As the head loads increased, there were increases in both axial and angular displacement of the head motion and the neck region. The study provides a theoretical basis for the design and understanding of the effects of head load carriage on vital organs that are susceptible to pains, damages, and even failure.