Application of Unicef's Communication Model for Behaviour Change: Mother's Response to Polio Eradication Campaign in selected Nigerian States

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Adewumi, O.A
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Numerous studies have investigated the general and specific effects of the media of communication on attitude and behaviour modification or change, using different theoretical approaches. Since polio cases assumed worse dimensions in Nigeria between 2003 and 2006, the UNICEF-developed ACADA communication planning framework for behaviour change has been consistently used to address the communication issues related to the problem. This study was conceived to provide data for policy makers, advocacy groups, development agencies and communication scholars on how the ACADA model for behaviour change has been applied and how mothers in study locations have responded to the polio eradication campaign in selected states in Nigeria. The social marketing theory, of which the ACADA model is a sub-set, formed the theoretical framework for the study. Triangulation research method consisting of survey, focus group discussion and interview were used to obtain data for the study. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 800 mothers of child-bearing age from four states in the country. From two polio-free South-West states, 400 mothers were selected, made up of 100 each from Ikere and Ido-Osi LGAs in Ekiti State, Ayobo-Ipaja and Yaba Local Council Development Authorities in Lagos State. From two polio-endemic North-West, another 400 mothers chosen, comprising of 100 each from Kaduna North and Chikun LGAs in Kaduna State and Gwale and Rimin-Gado LGAs in Kano State. Focus group discussion was used to obtain additional data from mothers while interview method was used to obtain information from polio programme officers in the local governments. Data collection instrument was the structured questionnaire. Of the 800 questionnaire administered to respondents, 716 were returned, only 654 were correctly filled. Data were analysed at univariate, bivariate and multivariate levels using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Eight research questions were raised and eight hypotheses formulated for the study. This shows there is relationship between the application of ACADA model for behaviour change and the positive response of mothers to the polio eradication campaign in the four selected states. It further reveals that though most mothers were exposed to ACADA-related messages from the mass media, their decisions on polio immunisation were largely influenced by family members (43.9%), friends (11.9%), village or community leader (8.7%), religious leaders (6.2%), and traditional rulers (3.5%). The mass media altogether contribute only 12.3% of the influence of mothers. Data indicate that socio-psychological factors such as respondents’ knowledge, beliefs, values, and practices as well as their demographic attributes influenced their responses to the campaign. The study recommends that government and development agencies should identify and work closely with major influencers in each community in every social change programme. It further recommends that thorough formative research be carried out before embarking on any intervention in the society. Finally, the study recommends that the ACADA model for behaviour change be included in the curricula for communication studies in Nigeria.
A Thesis Submitted to the School of Postgraduate Studies, University of Lagos
Mass Communication , Media , Polio , Social Marketing Theory , Research Subject Categories::SOCIAL SCIENCES::Other social sciences::Mass communication
Adewumi, O.A (2010). Application of Unicef's Communication Model for Behaviour Change: Mother's Response to Polio Eradication Campaign in selected Nigerian States. A Thesis Submitted to University of Lagos School of Postgraduate Studies Phd Thesis and Dissertation, 271pp.