An investigation of phytochemicals, antioxidants and genotoxic potentials of Datura metel L

Eleyowo, O. O. ; Amusa, O. D. ; Omotayo, M. A. ; Akpan, U. U. (2018)

Staff publications

Article

The use of plants with medicinal properties dates back decades and has been widespread. But regardless of their reported benefits, they are not completely harmless. Datura metel have been used over the years for various medicinal purposes with few reported complaints from its use. There is a need to evaluate the plant’s toxicity in a model organism other than man that could translate similar toxicity response. The phytochemicals, antioxidant and genotoxicity of crude aqueous and methanol leaf, seed and root extracts of D. metel was evaluated. The study showed no significant difference in the alkaloids, tanins and saponins in aqueous and methanol extracts. Steroids and terpenoids was not found in all plant parts evaluated regardless of extraction medium. However, flavonoid was higher in leaf and seed methanol extracts than aqueous extracts. Likewise, total flavonoid, total phenol except DPPH in aqueous leaf extract higher than methanol leaf extract. Also, total phenol in root extracts was lower than that observed in root methanol extract. Proliferation in all plant part extracts of aqueous and methanol was significantly lower when compare to the control with leaf extracts having the least mitotic index. The study observed aberrations which include adherent nucleus, c-mitosis, anaphase bridge, binucleate cells and sticky cells. Percentage aberration was highest with leaf methanol extract than other plant part extracts. Both aqueous and methanol extracts of D. metel plant parts showed high proliferation inhibition and increase aberration cells even at 2 mg/ml suggest the need for further safe dose determination of the plant before any medicinal use. Hence, still requires further safety studies to ascertain its dose limits permissive for human usage.