Evaluation of Citrus sinensis (Osbeck) (Rutaceae) peel preparation on the reduction of creatinine levels and its antioxidant properties in-vitro
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Pharmaceutical Society of Nigeria
Background The incidence of kidney diseases is on the increase globally, which necessitates the need for a safer alternative that will mitigate the effect of kidney disease. The study assessed the ability of Citrus sinensis peel extracts to reduce creatinine, a significant biomarker for glomerular filtration rate, a test that measures overall efficiency of the kidney. Method Citrus sinensis peels were collected, identified and authenticated by a curator. Phytochemical screening was carried out using standard procedures. Antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay compared to the Vitamin E standard, All experiments were carried out in triplicates. Two-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare difference between the antioxidant activities of extracts and standard drugs at 95% confidence. Amount of creatinine was determined using Jaffe method before and after addition of the extract to determine the effect of the extract on the amount of creatinine in the urine samples. The creatinine calculated to be present was analysed statistically using STATA MP 16. Results Extract was rich in saponins, terpenoids, tannins, flavonoids, reducing sugars and unsaturated lactone. The fresh peel extract at a concentration of 1% exhibited a DPPH antioxidant activity of 89.44%±0.3, and the dried peel extract at a concentration of 1% indicated a DPPH antioxidant activity of 79.16%±1.03 compared to the Vitamin E standard used. The extract showed statistically inferior antioxidant activities compared to the standard drug across all concentrations (p<0.05). The significant creatinine reduction observed for the dried peel extract was 0.008, 0.034 and 0.085 for the morning, afternoon and evening samples, respectively. Insignificant differences of 0.604, 0.626 and 0.331 were gotten upon comparison of the two extracts which indicated that both the extracts are equally as effective in creatinine level reduction. Conclusion From the study carried out, the extracts were rich in secondary metabolites, the extracts had suitable antiradical scavenging property on DPPH when compared with Vitamin E, and the extracts had, to a certain degree the ability to reduce the creatinine levels.
Citrus sinensis , creatinine , antioxidant , DPPH , kidney , Research Subject Categories::PHARMACY
Oyawaluja, A.A., Oiseoghaede, J.O., Ndu, C.C. and Odukoya, O.A. (2020). Evaluation of Citrus sinensis (Osbeck) (Rutaceae) peel preparation on the reduction of creatinine levels and its antioxidant properties in-vitro. The Nigerian Journal of Pharmacy