Risk of congenital cardiovascular anomalies in patients with non-syndromic orofacial cleft: A preliminary case-control study.
Background: Orofacial clefts (OCs) are one of the most common craniofacial anomalies and are reported to be associated with congenital cardiovascular anomalies (CCAs). However, there is paucity of data in African populations on the risk of CCAs in OC patients compared to the general population. Aims: This study aims to determine the odds of congenital cardiovascular anomalies in patients with OC compared to the general population. Subjects and Methods: A case‑control study design was used. Case subjects were non‑syndromic OC subjects, while controls were non‑syndromic subjects without OC. All subjects were thoroughly assessed by a pediatric cardiologist for CCAs; and grouped by OC phenotypic type (cleft lip and/or alveolus, cleft lip and palate, cleft palate only and Tessier cleft). Statistical analysis was done using STATA version 14 (College Station, Texas), and significance was placed at P value ≤0.05. Results: A total of 120 subjects (60 cases and 60 controls) were enrolled in the study. In total, 23.3% of the subjects had CCAs. Among the case group, 40% had CCAs compared to 6.7% in the control group. Patent foramen ovale (18.3%) and atrial septal defects (10.0%) were the most common type of CCAs in cases, respectively. Further, cases had significantly higher odds of CCAs compared to controls (OR: 9.3; CI: 2.8, 39.4). Conclusions: Our finding reveals that the odds of CCAs are significantly higher in patients with OC than the general population. Future studies could assess the effect of CCAs on surgical outcome.