Browsing UNILAG Journal of Humanities by Issue Date
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- ItemOpen AccessThe Development and Production of Low-Cost Improvised Mobile-Micro Science Apparatus and Kits(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Ogunleye, A; Raheem, I.AScience education imparts a method of inquiry and a systematic way of processing knowledge about the physical world. For this reason, science education provides part of the foundation for any knowledge-based inquiry. This paper presents results from the first stage of a three-stage project, designed to improve the learning of science by students through laboratory practical work activities. In Nigeria, one of the limiting factors for teaching Science in schools is the non-availability of even the most basic equipment for use in demonstration and laboratory exercises. Shortages of chemicals and equipment mean that teachers replace student experiments by teacher demonstrations or merely describe experiments and their outcome. Such practices are at odds with the expressed aims of science education. The first phase of this project involves the development and production of improvised low-cost apparatus and science kits that students could easily purchase and carry out their laboratory experiments on their own at home. The second phase of the project will involve the writing of students’ and teachers' manuals that can be used with the improvised resources made. The third phase of the project will seek to address the very difficult problems of maintenance. Such a problem has been recognized by UNESCO where it emphasizes that necessary steps should be taken for maintenance and care of materials after use. The major contribution to knowledge is that as a nation we need to be self-reliant especially in the development and manufacture of science education equipment and kits. Hence, this project should therefore encourage the establishment and development of small-scale enterprises in the area of equipment manufacturing. If the equipment is also low-cost, then it is more likely that it will be used in the classroom.
- ItemOpen AccessPotential for Innovation and Entrepreneurship Development in Nigeria: Lessons from Students of Landmark University(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Akinwale, A.AThe present article examines the possibility of entrepreneurship development from the perspectives of the budding students in a private university. The discourse is situated within the ambits of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Data were obtained through a survey of 250 students from various departments at Landmark University, Omu Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria. A multi-stage probability sampling technique was adopted for the selection of the sample size. The findings reveal overwhelming proportions of the respondents with talents and desire for entrepreneurship (87% versus 96.6%). Self-employment was the next plan of more than half of the respondents (56.1%). Based on the results of the hypotheses, possession of talent and desire for entrepreneurship was influenced by a number of factors such as ethnicity (R2 = 0.031, F = 4.6, P = 0.034); possession of talent (R2 = 0.804, F = 599.76, P = 0.001); desire for entrepreneurship (R2 = 0.329, F = 71.55, P = 0.001); and desired highest level of education (R2 = 0.032, F = 4.79, P = 0.03). It is concluded that some of the future entrepreneurs in Nigeria will be highly educated and innovative. In this case, there is need for recognition of self-help as a major strategy to maximize opportunity for the development of entrepreneurship in the midst of the adverse influence of globalization.
- ItemOpen AccessUniversity of Lagos Pre-service STM Teachers: Would They Function More as Entrepreneurs or as Intrapreneurs?(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Odogwu, H.N; Yewande, R.O; Fakorede, S.OThe study investigated whether pre-service STM teachers would function more as entrepreneurs or intrapreneurs using determinants such as personal characteristics, interpersonal skills, critical and creativity thinking skills, business skills as well as their choice of course. Three research questions were raised and answered using a mix method design. A questionnaire entitled “Entrepreneurship Ability Scale Questionnaire” was the self-validated instrument used to collect data. A random sample of 220 students comprising 114 males and 106 females was used. Data collected was analysed using logistic regression, multivariate analysis of variance as well as qualitative narrative analysis. Results showed that University of Lagos pre-service STM teachers are more likely to act as entrepreneurs rather than intrapreneurs. Personal characteristics, interpersonal skills, critical and creativity thinking skills as well as business skills were effective in reliably predicting their entrepreneurship abilities. Course of choice was not effective in reliably predicting entrepreneurship abilities of the teachers. Entrepreneurship abilities of pre-service teachers are not a function of their gender. Business skills top the list of skills acquired by the STM pre-service teachers as a result of their exposure to the course GST307: Entrepreneurship and Corporate Governance. Practical activities including field trips were the suggestion of many participants as a way of enhancing the teaching and learning of Entrepreneurship and Corporate Governance. It is recommended that practical activities including field trips be incorporated into GST307. A tracer study monitoring whether pre-service STM teachers are into intrapreneurship or entrepreneurship in the next five years is suggested.
- ItemOpen AccessInformation Management in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria: Imperative of a Statistical System in University of Lagos(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Adeleke, I.A; Dallah, H; Okafor, R; Oghojafor, B.E; Abass, OAs the University of Lagos celebrates its fiftieth anniversary as an institution there is need to have in place among several strategic plans, a fully integrated statistical and information system that consolidates the achievement of its present information and data management mechanism. The data generated by the university are one of its corporate assets which need to be properly protected and utilized. This article develops an integrated statistical system as part of a broader strategy of information management by the University of Lagos as an agenda beyond its 50th anniversary. A statistical system provides relevant, reliable, and accurate information. Data integration allows an organization to consolidate its present and historical data contained in the production system. The proposed model incorporates various national and international initiatives for having reliable, up-to-date, timely, efficient data dissemination and effective statistical information system. The policy implications of the proposed method are discussed.
- ItemOpen AccessAn Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Capital Adequacy in the Insurance Sub-sector of the Nigerian Economy(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Ogege, S; Mojekwu, J.NThe paper examines the impact of capital adequacy in the Insurance sub-sector and the growth of the Nigeria economy. It specifically seeks to ascertain the effect of insurance companies’ capital base and macroeconomic variables on the economy. Data used for the study were extracted from the Central Bank of Nigeria’s statistical Bulletin (2009). It employed the error correction framework and co-integration techniques to test the relationship between the insurance capital base and macroeconomics variables, also the adopted Granger causality test. Results reveal that political stability may reduce financial distress and bankruptcy while the total investment for the industry will affect insurance companies’ capital in most developing economies in the period of financial crisis. However, the study also establishes that there is a negative relationship between inflation and insurance companies’ capital base. The results suggest that the Nigerian government should regulate investment policy while insurance companies’ regulators should strive to keep inflation at a minimum level, if possible below 5% for them to be more efficient to be globally competitive.
- ItemOpen AccessThe Right to Education as a Catalyst for Economic Development(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Odusote, A.AThis study examines the effect of the enjoyment of the right to education on economic development. The study focuses on the role the right to education has to play in economic development. The study makes enquiries on the scope and content of the right to education and the correlation between the enjoyment of the right to education and economic development. The author finds that the enjoyment of the right to education produces a more educated society. To remain competitive in the contemporary and global marketplace and in the light of technological advancement, Nigeria needs to ensure that the right to education is assured. This will translate into an effective and competitive workforce. The study reveals that the Nigerian educational system is in dire need of reform, reform that will drive economic growth and educational advancement. Investing in national education has not been a top priority for different succeeding Nigerian governments for many years. Challenges include scarcity of textbooks, large classes, inadequate teaching materials, low staff morale and lack of competent teaching staff. This paper concludes that revitalising the education sector is a viable option for economic development in Nigeria. 1. 1 Introduction
- ItemOpen AccessGeographic Information for Disaster Management in Nigeria: Case Study of the Mud-beach Coast of Southwestern Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Fasona, M; Omojola, A; Soneye, A; Akintuyi, A; Abbas, IThis paper demonstrates the importance of geographic information in disaster management. It examines the state of disaster management in Nigeria and presents a local area case study of the use of geographic information to establish the vulnerability to composite environmental threat and hazard of 605 communities around the mud-beach coast of southwestern Nigeria. Environmental threat and hazard factors interpreted from remote sensing imageries were integrated within geographic information systems with data that characterized the communities. The integrated data was further analyzed for indices of exposure (stressors which define damage potentials) and management (likely coping ability which defines severity) for each community. Vulnerability index for each community was evaluated by comparing the difference between the degree of exposure and management. In terms of exposure, the results suggest that 18 communities fall under high exposure, 129 under medium exposure and 458 under low exposure categories. For management, 41 communities fall under the high management-low severity, 131 under average management-average severity and 433 under the low management-high severity categories. In all, 70 communities, most of which are first-line settlements, are highly vulnerability to composite environmental hazard. 80% of the highly vulnerable communities are found around degraded ecosystems including permanently inundated lands and areas where active devegetation is being experienced, which confirms the connection between creeping environmental change process and vulnerability to disasters especially at local levels.
- ItemOpen AccessAvoid the Bait; Miss No Underlying Meaning: A Concise Textual Deconstruction of Achebe’s A Man of the People(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Onyemelukwe, N.H; Ibeanna, W.E; Ogbechie, C.OFrom the perspective of Stylistics as a subfield of Instrumental Linguistics, texts may be writerly or readerly. Writerly texts are crafted such that they create room for multfaceted deconstruction, whereas readerly texts only allow for restricted or determinate deconstruction. Literary texts, especially those with high academic or scholarly (intellectual) value such as A Man of the People (AMOP), are certainly writerly in nature. For t his reason, AMOP is the reference text for the study. The objective of the study is to show that texts embody weighty textual messages more as underlying than as explicit meanings. The major theoretical framework of this study is Van Djik’s model of Critic al Discourse Analysis (CDA). CDA is ‘criticalized’ Discourse Analysis (DA). In other words, CDA is DA done following the criticalist tradition. This tradition integrates DA with radical social and cultural theories for the purpose of unearthing implicit me anings and underlying ideologies. The data analyses and discussion in the study have evinced that a sentence or any stretch of utterance means much more than its literal significance (denotation). That is, a text especially a literary one like AMOP, embeds multiples of underlying meaning once it is deconstructed from proper contextual perspectives, which could be intratextual and/or extratextual. The underlying ideologies, together with other implicit meanings in a text, need to be captured, because they could represent the bait in the text that conspires against the interest of the reader. Hence, whoever reads a text is urged to miss no underlying meaning.
- ItemOpen AccessHuman Capital Accumulation and Economic Growth in Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Shittu, A.I; Peng, X.A; Matthew, B.OThis article examines the relationship between human capital accumulation and economic growth in Nigeria. The OLS method of estimation was used for the purpose of estimating the required parameters. Interestingly, the findings reveal that human capital accumulation has a significant and positive impact on economic growth in Nigeria. This study makes an important contribution to the literature on economic growth, particularly those that focus on African countries. We tested for the role of both structural and political institutions. While the estimate of the structural institution exhibits a significant and positive effect on economic growth, the estimate of the political institution exhibits an insignificant and negative effect on economic growth in Nigeria.
- ItemOpen AccessLinguistics and the Study of Translation with English-Igbo Illustration(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Onyemelukwe, N.H; Ogunnaike, A.O; Alo, M.AThe relationship between linguistics and translation is such that there can be no translation without linguistics. This assertion provides an acceptable justification for this paper, the objective of which is to explicate how a translator can appropriate the knowledge of linguistics for unambiguous translation and be able to link two linguistic aliens in every social event. The study is anchored on three theoretical frameworks: The Contextual Theory of Meaning, The Theory of Interpretative Translation and The Theory of Dynamic Equivalence. The first theory captures the impact of context on meaning. The second places a high premium on contextualized source message interpretation and deverbialization. The central thrust of the last is that the interpretation of a given source message in L2 codes produces the same perlocutionary effects which it produces when rendered in L1 codes. The sampled source and translated messages in this study rendered in the English and Igbo languages, respectively, show that translation originates from autonomous linguistics to stand as a professional sub-field of instrumental linguistics. This major finding of the study makes the knowledge of autonomous linguistics imperative for every translator.
- ItemOpen AccessTable of Content(2013) UNILAG Journal of Humanities
- ItemOpen AccessTable of Content(2014) UNILAG Journal of Humanities
- ItemOpen AccessAdaptive Capacity to Climatic Change in the Nigerian Savannah(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Elias, P; Fasona, M; Adedayo, V; Olorunfemi, F; Adeniji, GThis study is based on the premise that the adaptive capacity of people and places is closely related to their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics which in turn determine their resilience. The study therefore examined the demographic and socioeconomic dimensions of selected agricultural communities in the Nigerian savanna with a view to assessing their adaptive capacity to climate change. The Nigerian savannah has been largely altered by human related activities which have reduced its capacity to support the teeming rural farming communities and the livelihood systems in the region. Livelihood systems in the region are closely associated with terrestrial ecosystems, and changes in global climate could exacerbate the conditions of the rural farmers. The methodology for the study was based on the multistage random sampling technique and Rural Rapid Appraisal (RPP) of eleven communities across ten Local Government Areas (LGAs) in two states of the southwest and north central Nigeria.Household survey, Key Informant Interview of traditional rulers and Government officials were carried out while an intensive Focused Group Discussion among all the actors was done. Both ex-ante and ex-post factors of gender, local knowledge and experience, education, income from farm and off-farm sources, ability to diversify, willingness to adapt, proportion of savings, and local adaptation mechanisms were identified and used to understand adaptive capacity of the local communities to climate change in the region. These factors provide an understanding of existing local actions which could point to future coping and adaption strategies given emerging challenges of climate change. By upscaling the local adaptive capacity it is possible to evolve regional and national policies for improving the resilience of rural agricultural communities.
- ItemOpen AccessBardolatry and the Creative Space: The Example of Niyi Osundare and Akeem Lasisi(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Anyokwu, CThe question of "Influence" is one that dates back to ancient classical times and one which has engaged both creative and critical writers and scholars down the ages. In his influential study entitled The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry, Harold Bloom thoroughly investigates the concept, arguing the inescapability of "Influence" in the creative process as well as in the critical enterprise. Basing our argument on Bloom's theory, we examine the relationship between Osundare's verse and Akeem Lasisi's poetry and conclude that the one influenced the other in spite of the fact that both poets hail from Yorubaland.
- ItemOpen AccessFinancing Effects of Global Economic Crisis on Energy Investments in Nigeria: A Comparative Analysis of Pre-Crisis and Crisis Era(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Adeoye, B.W; Atanda, A.AThe energy sector is recognised as one of the most crucial real sectors in any economy, considering the dependent nature of other sectors' development on its growth. The emergence of the global financial crisis that engulfed most African nations is one of the greatest threats to energy development in terms of investment and financing options despite the "resource curse" confronting most of the resource-endowed economies like Nigeria. This has motivated this study to examine the impact of the global financial crisis on energy investment and financing in Nigeria between the pre-crisis era (2000-2005) and the crisis era (2006-20/0). The descriptive and graphical analysis employed revealed that between the pre-crisis (2000-2005) and during crisis era (2006-20/0) total energy investment by both private and public sectors declined by 75.2% andthis negatively affected most energy development indicators such as the hydro power generation capacity from Kainji, Jebba and Shiroro; total electricity production per capita; total electric power consumption per capita; and net oil proceeds to national output in Nigeria. Following these findings, the study recommends that joint partnership agreement between the private (both foreign and local institutional investors) and public sectors should be implemented to undertake most of the abandoned energy projects due to lack ofjinance, via a "Build, Operate, and Control (BOC) " system in order to revamp the energy sector development by 2020.
- ItemOpen AccessThe Complex Sentence In Legal English: A Study of Law Reports(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Wiredu, J.FUsing Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar as its theoretical framework, this study analyses case reports of Ghana's Supreme Court decisions which were published in the Daily Graphic of 20 II and 2012. There were 87 such cases reported in the newspaper in that period The study is based on the assumption that legal English is a recognised specialised form of language use and that the language is specific to the special requirements of the law. Earlier studies have noted that the pursuit of precision, clarity and all-inclusiveness is an important goal of legal language. Accordingly, in this work, we have established that these goals of precision, clarity and all-inclusiveness are achieved through the use of detailed information to avoid confusion.and ambiguity in the interpretation of the law. if legal language is perceived as complex and incomprehensible, it is because there are specific linguistic steps taken to ensure that the language is precise, clear and unambiguous. One such measure is the use of grammatical structures. For instance, in order to accommodate the high volume of information within a sentence, different structural types of clauses are used in law texts. The main question we answer in this work is: what are the linguistic structures we find at the unit of sentence in law reports? From the analysis, the following results have emerged The declarative is the only sentence type used in the reports which we analysed In addition, it is noticed that hypo taxis is the preferred clausal relationship in this variety. As a result, the picture that emerges in this analysis is that there is the overwhelming dominance of the dependent clause type. This is an indication that: there are links between ideas in the sentence; that there is the process of information integration in the legal texts; andthai there is information ranking in the texts. All these indicators are realised through rankshifting, a grammatical process which has facilitated the packaging ahd the ranking of the ideas in a single sentence.
- ItemOpen AccessChina's Economic Growth Driven Reform Strategies 1978 - 2010: Any lessons for Nigeria?(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Iwuagwu, OChina's rapid economic transformation over the past thirty years has come as a surprise to many considering the previous condition of the country. This has resulted mainly from China's open door policy, adopted in 1978, thus facilitating massive inflow of foreign direct investments (FDJ) into its manufacturing sector. China's manufacturing sector continues to churn out complex export products that have created an unprecedented export-led growth. China's experience, especially when compared with other developing economies, is exemplary. This is unlike Nigeria's resource-driven economy, where even the meagre FD1 that comes in is channelled into the oil industry, while manufacturing production receives limited attention. The article the lessons that Nigeria could learn from China in view of the similarities between the two countries
- ItemOpen AccessThe Creative Use of Themes in Contemporary Igbo Popular Music in Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Osigwe, C.NPopular music is an offshoot of several musical typologies which are indigenous or acculturated, incorporating both local and foreign elements. Most popular musical styles or genres in Nigerian music scene evolved through various contributions from musicians of diverse cultural sensibilities. Furthermore, the musical practices of the Igbo are seen through their social, religious and cultural lives as their music accompanies every stage of human and social development (childhood - adulthood - death). Igbo popular music, being a contemporary genre, depicts both the language and cultural elements of one of the major ethnic groups in Nigeria. The music has evolved owing to acculturation, economic factor, technology and globalisation. This articles attempts to appropriate musical theme - a borrowed concept from Western classical music - into the structural form of 19b 0 popular music vis-a-vis its vocal and instrumental elements. It effectively analysed selected songs of prominent Igbo artistes/ musicians and further established how these themes are creatively used in contemporary Igbo popular music. Three distinctive methods were deduced from the analysis - the antiphonal theme, instrumental theme and instrumental/ antiphonaltheme.
- ItemOpen AccessReading Strategies: A Catalyst for Enhancing Comprehension and Summary Writing' Proficiency, among High School Students in Lagos State(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Ikonta, N.R; Ugbede, N.JDesigns the effects of the use of reading strategies on the development of students ' proficiency in reading comprehension and summary writing That is, it sought to determine whether students exposed to reading strategies would improve and perform better in reading comprehension and summary writing than those not so exposed. A total of 240 senior secondary I (SSJ) students and 50 teachers were randomly selected ./i"OI7l four randomly selected senior secondary schools in Lagos State, Nigeria. Two separate questionnaires of the Likert scale type were administered on the teacher and student samples. Five reading passages were used to teach students some relevant reading strategies such as predicting, thinking aloud, inferring, questioning, context clues and summarising. The pre-test and post-test exercises were used to collect data in both comprehension and summary writing Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean, standard deviation and ANO VA statistical tools, at 0.05 significant level. Findings showed that while teachers were aware of some reading strategies and techniques of summary writing, students were not; the use of reading strategies had a significant positive effect on students' performance in reading comprehension; reading strategies positively affected students' performance in summary writing; and there was a significant difference in performance between students who received reading instructions using reading strategies and those who did not in both comprehension and summary writing Based on the findings, recommendations were made on how to create more awareness about reading strategies, their benefits and how to cultivate their use to enhance the performance of students in reading comprehension and summary writing
- ItemOpen AccessPublic Agitation, Social Media and the Government: An Analysis of the Use of Social Media as a Catalyst for Change in Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Williams-Elegbe, SMany countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have enjoyed a political and economic renaissance in the last 25 years. Politically, many countries have enjoyed relative democratic stability and the economic benefits that accompany democratic rule. It is generally assumed that a stable democracy is synonymous with responsible (or at- least, more responsible) leadership, howsoever defined. One country that appears to deny this assumption is Nigeria. An assessment of the type of leadership that Nigeria has endured since 1999, illustrates that the Nigerian democracy does not appear to be attracting the kind of leadership that can translate political rhetoric into developmental benefits. There are several reasons for this, which include the educational constraints; the vestiges of military governance, which has limited the collective awareness of appropriate leadership styles as well as the funding mechanism for political office, which excludes the intelligentsia and the middle class from ejJectively participating in the political process amongst others. This paper presents a critical assessment of public agitation for good governance, as stimulated by social media in Nigeria between 2009 and 2014. 1t will examine social media responses to leadership failings in Nigeria and determine whether citizen responses are able to provide a catalyst for a change. The paper will conclude with an assessment of citizen-led measures that may work, are working or have worked in Nigeria that may affect the quality and nature of leadership in Nigeria.