UNILAG Journal of Humanities
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- ItemOpen AccessAdaptive Capacity to Climatic Change in the Nigerian Savannah(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Elias, P; Fasona, M; Adedayo, V; Olorunfemi, F; Adeniji, GThis study is based on the premise that the adaptive capacity of people and places is closely related to their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics which in turn determine their resilience. The study therefore examined the demographic and socioeconomic dimensions of selected agricultural communities in the Nigerian savanna with a view to assessing their adaptive capacity to climate change. The Nigerian savannah has been largely altered by human related activities which have reduced its capacity to support the teeming rural farming communities and the livelihood systems in the region. Livelihood systems in the region are closely associated with terrestrial ecosystems, and changes in global climate could exacerbate the conditions of the rural farmers. The methodology for the study was based on the multistage random sampling technique and Rural Rapid Appraisal (RPP) of eleven communities across ten Local Government Areas (LGAs) in two states of the southwest and north central Nigeria.Household survey, Key Informant Interview of traditional rulers and Government officials were carried out while an intensive Focused Group Discussion among all the actors was done. Both ex-ante and ex-post factors of gender, local knowledge and experience, education, income from farm and off-farm sources, ability to diversify, willingness to adapt, proportion of savings, and local adaptation mechanisms were identified and used to understand adaptive capacity of the local communities to climate change in the region. These factors provide an understanding of existing local actions which could point to future coping and adaption strategies given emerging challenges of climate change. By upscaling the local adaptive capacity it is possible to evolve regional and national policies for improving the resilience of rural agricultural communities.
- ItemOpen AccessAvoid the Bait; Miss No Underlying Meaning: A Concise Textual Deconstruction of Achebe’s A Man of the People(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Onyemelukwe, N.H; Ibeanna, W.E; Ogbechie, C.OFrom the perspective of Stylistics as a subfield of Instrumental Linguistics, texts may be writerly or readerly. Writerly texts are crafted such that they create room for multfaceted deconstruction, whereas readerly texts only allow for restricted or determinate deconstruction. Literary texts, especially those with high academic or scholarly (intellectual) value such as A Man of the People (AMOP), are certainly writerly in nature. For t his reason, AMOP is the reference text for the study. The objective of the study is to show that texts embody weighty textual messages more as underlying than as explicit meanings. The major theoretical framework of this study is Van Djik’s model of Critic al Discourse Analysis (CDA). CDA is ‘criticalized’ Discourse Analysis (DA). In other words, CDA is DA done following the criticalist tradition. This tradition integrates DA with radical social and cultural theories for the purpose of unearthing implicit me anings and underlying ideologies. The data analyses and discussion in the study have evinced that a sentence or any stretch of utterance means much more than its literal significance (denotation). That is, a text especially a literary one like AMOP, embeds multiples of underlying meaning once it is deconstructed from proper contextual perspectives, which could be intratextual and/or extratextual. The underlying ideologies, together with other implicit meanings in a text, need to be captured, because they could represent the bait in the text that conspires against the interest of the reader. Hence, whoever reads a text is urged to miss no underlying meaning.
- ItemOpen AccessBardolatry and the Creative Space: The Example of Niyi Osundare and Akeem Lasisi(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Anyokwu, CThe question of "Influence" is one that dates back to ancient classical times and one which has engaged both creative and critical writers and scholars down the ages. In his influential study entitled The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry, Harold Bloom thoroughly investigates the concept, arguing the inescapability of "Influence" in the creative process as well as in the critical enterprise. Basing our argument on Bloom's theory, we examine the relationship between Osundare's verse and Akeem Lasisi's poetry and conclude that the one influenced the other in spite of the fact that both poets hail from Yorubaland.
- ItemOpen AccessBridging Understanding in Medicare: Template for Effective Communication in Indigenous Languages(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2015) Yusuff, L.A; Fadairo, Y.OThe maintenance of a good patient-doctor relationship, otherwise known as clinical relationship, is central to health care delivery in medical practice. For this reason, the usual practice in medical schools all over the world is to make the attainment of communication skills compulsory for all. A doctor’s good communication skills, therefore, are a function of the medical vocabulary with which he communicates with his patients. It has been observed that doctors in many African societies, especially in Yorubaland, have mostly conveyed their ideas in medical jargons using the English language, and this inevitably breaches clinical relationships. This article seeks to address the issue by proposing a template for the conveyance of medical terms, in respect of consultation procedures and directional information labels in the hospital environment, in the Yoruba language as a medium of clinical communication. Appealing to concepts embedded in the theory of lexical morphology, this article demonstrates how word formation processes can be used to achieve a Yoruba language template for medical terminologies.
- ItemOpen AccessBullying in the Nigerian Work Environment(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2015) Owoyemi, O.A; Akintayo, O.MWorkplace bullying has attracted the attention of researchers in Europe, US, and elsewhere. It has therefore become necessary to examine the phenomenon in Nigeria, given the continuous enlightenment concerning the health of targets and the financial implications for organisations. Using qualitative data obtained from structured in-depth-interview of thirty employees randomly selected from public and private sector organisations in Nigeria, this study explores the nature of bullying in the Nigerian work environment. Considering the paucity of literature on the subject in Africa, this research contributes to knowledge on the nature of workplace bullying in Nigeria with a focus on the contexts of its occurrence. Findings reveal the prominence of bullying in the public sector with culture playing a significant part in its acceptability. Findings also reveal that bullying targets are not likely to report such behaviour because of the fear of retribution. Religion is therefore employed as a coping mechanism because jobs are scarce and social benefits do not exist to cushion the impact of unemployment. The impact on productivity is profound; disenchanted workforces that exhibit little or no ingenuity in the execution of their duties cannot function maximally. Unfortunately, diligent members of staff resign in frustration whilst a few develop psychosomatic symptoms in prolonged cases of bullying. To remain relevant and competitive in today’s dynamic world of business, the managements of establishments in Nigeria need to be proactive in analysing the risk factors that facilitate organisational deviant behaviours in their work environments, and address them in order to create more productive work climates.
- ItemOpen AccessChina's Economic Growth Driven Reform Strategies 1978 - 2010: Any lessons for Nigeria?(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Iwuagwu, OChina's rapid economic transformation over the past thirty years has come as a surprise to many considering the previous condition of the country. This has resulted mainly from China's open door policy, adopted in 1978, thus facilitating massive inflow of foreign direct investments (FDJ) into its manufacturing sector. China's manufacturing sector continues to churn out complex export products that have created an unprecedented export-led growth. China's experience, especially when compared with other developing economies, is exemplary. This is unlike Nigeria's resource-driven economy, where even the meagre FD1 that comes in is channelled into the oil industry, while manufacturing production receives limited attention. The article the lessons that Nigeria could learn from China in view of the similarities between the two countries
- ItemOpen AccessThe Complex Sentence In Legal English: A Study of Law Reports(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Wiredu, J.FUsing Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar as its theoretical framework, this study analyses case reports of Ghana's Supreme Court decisions which were published in the Daily Graphic of 20 II and 2012. There were 87 such cases reported in the newspaper in that period The study is based on the assumption that legal English is a recognised specialised form of language use and that the language is specific to the special requirements of the law. Earlier studies have noted that the pursuit of precision, clarity and all-inclusiveness is an important goal of legal language. Accordingly, in this work, we have established that these goals of precision, clarity and all-inclusiveness are achieved through the use of detailed information to avoid confusion.and ambiguity in the interpretation of the law. if legal language is perceived as complex and incomprehensible, it is because there are specific linguistic steps taken to ensure that the language is precise, clear and unambiguous. One such measure is the use of grammatical structures. For instance, in order to accommodate the high volume of information within a sentence, different structural types of clauses are used in law texts. The main question we answer in this work is: what are the linguistic structures we find at the unit of sentence in law reports? From the analysis, the following results have emerged The declarative is the only sentence type used in the reports which we analysed In addition, it is noticed that hypo taxis is the preferred clausal relationship in this variety. As a result, the picture that emerges in this analysis is that there is the overwhelming dominance of the dependent clause type. This is an indication that: there are links between ideas in the sentence; that there is the process of information integration in the legal texts; andthai there is information ranking in the texts. All these indicators are realised through rankshifting, a grammatical process which has facilitated the packaging ahd the ranking of the ideas in a single sentence.
- ItemOpen AccessCorporate Governance Practices and Banks ’ Performance in Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Sulaimon, A.A; Ifere, S.E; Rahim, G.A; Ebulo, JIn the aftermath of the bank consolidation exercise in Nigeria of 2006, the regulatory authorities intensified their focus on how business is managed and run, which led to developing different forms of framework for corporate governance. This study investigates the relationship between corporate governance practices of First Bank (Formerly First Bank of Nigeria PLC) and its performance in the banking industry. The study adopted the survey research design, using the quantitative research approach. The primary source of data was the use of self-completed questionnaire administered on 120 employees of the bank. The data were analysed using mean, standard deviation and correlation analysis. The results show that First Bank embraced the codes of good corporate governance. The study further established a positive significant relationship between corporate governance practices and the performance of the bank. On this note, the study recommends that, to improve bank performance in Nigeria, banks should conduct their businesses in a transparent and accountable manner, and cultivate a high ethical standard to promote corporate governance.
- ItemOpen AccessThe Creative Use of Themes in Contemporary Igbo Popular Music in Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Osigwe, C.NPopular music is an offshoot of several musical typologies which are indigenous or acculturated, incorporating both local and foreign elements. Most popular musical styles or genres in Nigerian music scene evolved through various contributions from musicians of diverse cultural sensibilities. Furthermore, the musical practices of the Igbo are seen through their social, religious and cultural lives as their music accompanies every stage of human and social development (childhood - adulthood - death). Igbo popular music, being a contemporary genre, depicts both the language and cultural elements of one of the major ethnic groups in Nigeria. The music has evolved owing to acculturation, economic factor, technology and globalisation. This articles attempts to appropriate musical theme - a borrowed concept from Western classical music - into the structural form of 19b 0 popular music vis-a-vis its vocal and instrumental elements. It effectively analysed selected songs of prominent Igbo artistes/ musicians and further established how these themes are creatively used in contemporary Igbo popular music. Three distinctive methods were deduced from the analysis - the antiphonal theme, instrumental theme and instrumental/ antiphonaltheme.
- ItemOpen AccessDecentralisation of Health Care Delivery in Nigeria: Issues in Governance and Citizens’ Participation in Local Health Care(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2017) Quadri, M.OIssues of citizens’ participation in democracy continue to be a recurring decimal in governance discourse. This is more so as it is widely believed that promoting the main tenets of democracy and increasing people’s participation will engender development. The inference from this is that, since development is about people, when people are part of the decisions that affect their lives, then, they would be able to make meaningful contributions to issues that concern their own development. It is therefore argued that popular participation is in essence the empowerment of the people to involve themselves in creating structures and in designing policies and programmes that serve the interests of all and contribute optimally to the development process. Decentralisation emerged as a result of global trend to local autonomy and self-determination, and as a result of a trend to reduce reliance on centralised planning and be more responsive to market forces as well as local needs. In relation to the health sector, decentralisation is concerned with changing the way health systems are organised to produce effective service delivery. The point has been made that decentralisation could be useful in supporting and developing health services and bring it closer to people. This paper therefore examines the process of decentralisation and how it impacts on primary health care (PHC) service delivery in Nigeria.
- ItemOpen AccessDeforestation, Food Security and Environmental Sustainability in South-west, Nigeria, 1960-2015(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2017) Ajiola, F.O; Ilesanmi, T.EThe forest region of Nigeria—especially the south-western agrarian, and other non-farming communities have witnessed ruthless deforestation either for urbanization or other consumerist purposes, since the past few decades. This anomie constitutes a major challenge in the drive towards achieving sustainable food production from the agrarian areas as well as environmental sustainability. Deforestation is a major threat to the ecosystem and agricultural activities in Nigeria. This article examines the relationship between deforestation, food insecurity and environmental sustainability in South-western Nigeria. Social, economic and environmental historians in Nigeria have overlooked the impact of the phenomenon on food security and environmental sustainability in Nigeria. The study adopts the historical methodology and uses the vent-for surplus theory to show that food insecurity, substandard human quality of life, low life expectancy, epidemics and changes in the biodiversity in southwest Nigeria are results of deforestation and environmental mismanagement. The paper recommends that reducing the growing de-agrarianization, food shortage, and environmental challenges in Nigeria, requires the need to reinvent the wheel by strengthening institutional regulations, including non-state agencies monitoring the use of the environment and conservation of biodiversity. Traditional environmental protection mechanisms, such as taboos, myths, superstitions may also help to reduce the alarming rate of environmental mismanagement.
- ItemOpen AccessDemand for Reinsurance and Solvency of Insurance Business in Nigeria: An Empirical Analysis(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Obalola, M.A; Abass, O.AThe importance of reinsurance in the insurance business cycle cannot be overemphasized. The benefits of reinsurance include increased capacity, technical expertise, allocation of risks and limitation of financial distress. However, as an insurer gathers more underwriting experience, it is expected that less reinsurance is demanded. Hence, frequent demand may be a sign of insolvency because it simultaneously reduces the variability of cash flows and financial leverage. The purpose of this research is to investigate if the excessive use of reinsurance is an indication of insolvency in the Nigerian insurance industry. Using purposive sampling techniques, ten (10) general insurance companies were selected from forty-nine (49) operating in Nigeria. Returns on assets (ROA), Returns on equity (ROE) and size were used as indicators to measure the level of solvency while product diversification, claims ratio, combined ratio, reinsurance price, liquidity ratio and expense ratio were used as indicators to measure demand for reinsurance by primary insurers. The findings of the study reveal that there is significant relationship between the solvency and demand for reinsurance, though product diversification, combined ratio and reinsurance price are more significant than loss ratio, liquidity ratio and expense ratio. It is recommended that primary insurer should be more concerned about its concentrated business mix, combined ratio and the price (premium) of reinsurance.
- ItemOpen AccessThe Development and Production of Low-Cost Improvised Mobile-Micro Science Apparatus and Kits(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Ogunleye, A; Raheem, I.AScience education imparts a method of inquiry and a systematic way of processing knowledge about the physical world. For this reason, science education provides part of the foundation for any knowledge-based inquiry. This paper presents results from the first stage of a three-stage project, designed to improve the learning of science by students through laboratory practical work activities. In Nigeria, one of the limiting factors for teaching Science in schools is the non-availability of even the most basic equipment for use in demonstration and laboratory exercises. Shortages of chemicals and equipment mean that teachers replace student experiments by teacher demonstrations or merely describe experiments and their outcome. Such practices are at odds with the expressed aims of science education. The first phase of this project involves the development and production of improvised low-cost apparatus and science kits that students could easily purchase and carry out their laboratory experiments on their own at home. The second phase of the project will involve the writing of students’ and teachers' manuals that can be used with the improvised resources made. The third phase of the project will seek to address the very difficult problems of maintenance. Such a problem has been recognized by UNESCO where it emphasizes that necessary steps should be taken for maintenance and care of materials after use. The major contribution to knowledge is that as a nation we need to be self-reliant especially in the development and manufacture of science education equipment and kits. Hence, this project should therefore encourage the establishment and development of small-scale enterprises in the area of equipment manufacturing. If the equipment is also low-cost, then it is more likely that it will be used in the classroom.
- ItemOpen AccessDiversification of the Nigerian Economy: Creating a Partnership between Town and Gown(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2017) Olusanya, O.A; Ideh, D.ADiversification of the Nigerian economy is non-negotiable, and partnership among stakeholders is necessary. However, there appears to be a disconnect between the academic institutions and the society they serve, one of the symptoms being the high youth unemployment in the country. This study examined how creating a partnership between town and gown can aid the diversification drive of the Nigerian economy. A qualitative research method was adopted; the paper therefore relied on existing literature to draw its conclusions. The study revealed that improving the educational and research institutions will bring about improvement in the outcome of the diversification drive by the government; and that an improved relationship between ‘town’ and ‘gown’ and the creation of effective educational policies will enhance the acceptability and the relevance of outputs from the educational system by the productive sectors of the economy. The study recommended that: educational policies should promote entrepreneurial skills transfer to strengthen the partnership between town and gown; actions should be taken to transform the educational system to be able to develop knowledge-based products and services for export and local consumption. The paper concluded that until there is an appropriate partnership between educational and research institutions and the society, the diversification of the economy may be an unreachable dream.
- ItemOpen AccessE-Waste in West Africa: Beyond Environmental and Health Risks(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Adejonwo-Osho, OThe urgency of the problem of electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) is evident worldwide; however, some countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are shouldering a disproportionate burden of a global problem without having the requisite capacity and the technology to deal with it. E- waste contains hazardous substances such as lead, mercury, and hazardous chemicals, such as brominated flame retardants, which are hazardous to the environment, humans, and flora and fauna, if not disposed of properly. The increasing desire to bridge the digital divide coupled with poverty in West African countries have encouraged the thriving market and demand for e-waste. This paper highlights the problem of e-waste in West Africa and the fact that the challenges and impacts of e-waste go beyond environmental and health risks. It emphasizes the myriad issues and challenges of regulating and governing the menace of e-waste in West Africa. The paper concludes with several recommendations on how West African countries, as a region and as individual countries, can address the challenges and menace of e-waste, while seeking for avenues to tap into its economic potentials.
- ItemOpen AccessEconomic Diversification in the Context of a Constitutional Right to Happiness: Implications for Law and Policy Initiatives(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2017) Akintayo, A.ENigeria’s oil resources have been more of a curse than a blessing. This has given rise to the need and current efforts to diversify the Nigerian economic base from over reliance on oil for a more stable and sustainable economic development. Diversification of the Nigerian economy is however a process that cannot but take place in contexts and one of the requisite contexts is the constitutional and the legal one. Nigeria’s constitutional and legal frameworks and economic initiatives and policies, however, present a contrast and a contradiction. While the economic policies and initiatives are neo-liberal in form and character, they are underpinned by a constitution with a social democratic orientation. One of the core norms of Nigeria’s social democratic oriented constitution is the constitutional right to happiness. This article highlights the contradiction inherent in Nigeria’s social democratic oriented constitutional framework vis-a-vis the economic policies and initiatives. It also interrogates the implications of a right to happiness as a core value of Nigeria’s social democratic oriented constitution on the economic diversification laws and policies of Nigeria. The clear articulation of the constitutional context(s) within which the diversification of the Nigerian economy is to take place has become important at this time because of the apparent disconnect between the vision of the Nigerian Constitution and the aims and objectives of current economic reforms. It is hoped that a clear exposition of the requisite constitutional context(s) will bring about the much needed focus and direction in the formulation and execution of people oriented and people focussed policies and laws for sustainable economic reforms.
- ItemOpen AccessEffect of Currency Devaluation on Macro - Economic Variables: The Nigerian Experience(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Amah, P.NThis paper investigates past exchange rate management regimes adopted by the Central Bank of Nigeria since 1959, and attempts to find out whether devaluation can be used to restore equilibrium and significantly achieve national economic growth and development. The Multiple Least Squares method was used to estimate coefficients of the identified relationships following one period lag and autoregressive models formulated to correct errors detected in the data of macroeconomic variables. Significantly, a negative and statistically significant relationship was found between exchange rate and non-oil exports. Devaluation had a negative cause-effect relationship with inflation. It was also negative and significant with national output in the one-year lag specification. Accordingly the paper recommends that devaluation should not be relied upon as a primary tool for restoration of macroeconomic balance. Instead, a system of managed float supported with strong trade and exchange controls should be used. Complementary fiscal policy measures should also be adopted.
- ItemOpen AccessEffects of Play-Therapy on some Psychological Problems of Beggars’ Children in Destitute Center: Imo State-Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Iwuagwu, J.N; Ughelu, J.NThe study investigates the effects of play-therapy method in solving some psychological problems of children in Destitute Centres in Imo State of Nigeria. The study is predicated on the risk of begging in Nigeria which has created a big void in the life of children of beggars. The study is restricted to the destitute centres in Imo State for proper control of the study. The children of beggars face many psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and obsessive behaviours to mention just a few. This study is guided by three research questions. The method of the study is quasi-experimental design, pre/post-test control group design. Multi-stage sample techniques are used to select 100 participants. The Intervention, Play-Therapy method is used for experimental group. The instruments for the study were Goldberg Depression Inventory by Goldberg (1993) and Beck Anxiety Inventory by Beck (1980). The statistical tool used is Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) at 0.05 level of significant. The result shows that play-therapy methods significantly reduces the level of anxiety and depression of children of beggars in destitute centres in Imo State.
- ItemOpen AccessAn Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Capital Adequacy in the Insurance Sub-sector of the Nigerian Economy(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2013) Ogege, S; Mojekwu, J.NThe paper examines the impact of capital adequacy in the Insurance sub-sector and the growth of the Nigeria economy. It specifically seeks to ascertain the effect of insurance companies’ capital base and macroeconomic variables on the economy. Data used for the study were extracted from the Central Bank of Nigeria’s statistical Bulletin (2009). It employed the error correction framework and co-integration techniques to test the relationship between the insurance capital base and macroeconomics variables, also the adopted Granger causality test. Results reveal that political stability may reduce financial distress and bankruptcy while the total investment for the industry will affect insurance companies’ capital in most developing economies in the period of financial crisis. However, the study also establishes that there is a negative relationship between inflation and insurance companies’ capital base. The results suggest that the Nigerian government should regulate investment policy while insurance companies’ regulators should strive to keep inflation at a minimum level, if possible below 5% for them to be more efficient to be globally competitive.
- ItemRestrictedEnergy Resources Governance for National Development: Options for Socially Sustainable Electricity Generation, Transmission and Distribution in Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2015) Oke, YThe provision of low-cost, affordable and regular electricity is crucial to industrial development, employment generation and poverty alleviation in Nigeria. To this extent, the power sector of Nigeria has recently witnessed major policy re-directions, which are intended to reposition it for better efficiency through private players and by streamlining the regulatory and supervisory roles of government and its agencies.The Nigerian government believes very strongly that the new initiative will help to create a paradigm shift in a sector replete with regulatory overlaps, under-productivity and administrative laxities. While commending reform initiatives in the power sector of Nigeria, a careful look at the reformed electricity sector leaves one with an impression that the new policy is yet to sufficiently reflect the trends of sustainable electricity governance in other countries where similar reforms had taken place. This article reviews primary and secondary legal instruments, the Electric Power Sector Reform Act of 2005 (EPSR) and the Regulations (Electricity Regulations made pursuant to the ESPR Act). It throws-up the inadequacies of the current (reformed) electricity regime to the extent that some of its provisions violate certain sections of the Nigerian Constitution, and are inherently contradictory.