Faculty of Pharmacy
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- ItemOpen AccessAcceptance of ACTs by Patients in Private Healthcare Facilities in Surulere, Lagos State(Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine, 2008) Joda, A.E.; Fanimokun, T.O.Chloroquine has remained the first line in the management of malaria for over five decades. The avalanche of published research works and books on Chloroquine attests to its success and usefulness. Although, Chloroquine and Sulfadoxine / Pyrimethamine are readily available and inexpensive, P. falciparum parasites are resistant to these therapies in most parts of the tropics necessitating a switch in the antimalaria policy to Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). However, studies hitherto conducted revealed that the ACTs were not yet accepted by patients suffering from malaria and justified the position of the researchers to determine if the situation had changed. Fifteen health facilities including private clinics and community pharmacies were used as target locations. Pre-tested questionnaires were administered on 30 randomly selected patients (2 per facility). A recovery rate of 100% was recorded. Most of the respondents were female. Majority of them were aged between 20-24 years. Most of the respondents could accurately interpret ACTs and many of them knew the ACT drugs in addition to other antimalaria drugs such as chloroquine and sulphadoxine plus pyrimethamine. Many of the respondents have used ACTs before. Though a definite preference for sulphadoxine plus pyrimethamine is still observed, majority of the respondents chose ACTs as their second line. Very few of the respondents indicated using chloroquine for their last malaria episode. From the results, the level of acceptance of ACTs and other Artemisinin products is high (50%) probably because more information is available on ACTs to both healthcare personnel and patients through mass media like television, radio, newspapers. It can be concluded that there is better acceptance of Artemisinin products (26.67% for ACTs, 23.33% for Artemisinin monotherapy) by patients though results still show a relative preference for sulphadoxine plus pyrimethamine (40%) probably because of the ease of the use (single dose administration) and cost. Information on adherence to therapy with ACTs must be sustained to prevent rapid emergence of resistance species to ACTs.
- ItemOpen AccessAccessibility of Antimalarials in Secondary Health Care Facilities and Community Pharmacies in Lagos State – A Comparative Study(Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care, 2013) Soremekun, R.O; Ogunbanjo, O.A; Ogbo, P.UBackgroundThe attainment of the 6th Millennium Development Goal to halt and reverse the effects of malaria and other diseases by 2015 depends on the accessibility of Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) which is now the first line antimalarial therapy for uncomplicated malaria. The main Objective of this study was to assess the availability and affordability of ACTs in Secondary Health Care (SHC) facilities in Lagos State and community pharmacies located within 200 meters of these facilities. Method Two SHC facilities each were randomly selected from four (4) geographical zones and the only one (1) in the fifth zone was selected, making a total of nine (9) facilities which were surveyed. The eleven (11) community pharmacies located within 200 meters of these health care facilities were also used for the study. A modified HAI was used for data collection on medicine price and availability was used for the study. Results: ACTs (artemisinin/lumefantrine) were prescribed 90% of the time as first line antimalarial. About thirty seven percent (37.5%) of the hospitals did not have the drug in stock at the time of visit and drugs had been out of stock for upward of three weeks. Private partnership pharmacies do not stock antimalarials as a matter of policy, since the drugs are supposed to be obtained free from the hospital. This first line antimalarial cost about six hundred and forty naira (N640) in the private community pharmacies. Conclusion: ACTs are not always available in the hospitals in Lagos State; patients therefore depend on community pharmacies and patent medicine stores for their ACT supply. Since 93.9% of Nigerians live in subjective poverty, the cost of first line ACT antimalarial remains unaffordable and inaccessible.
- ItemOpen AccessAcute and sub-chronic toxicities and antimicrobial profiling of hydro-ethanol extracts of Moringa oleifera (L) seed in Swiss albino mice and Wistar rats(Natural Product Research Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin., 2018-07) Igbokwe, N.H.; Ogbonnia, S.O.; Azubuike, C.P.; Idowu, A.O.; Orajiaka, S.C.; Ota, D.A.Seeds and nuts have been employed since prehistoric era for their therapeutics and health benefits. Moringa oleifera (L.) is one of such seeds with poly-therapeutic activities and is consumed extensively in Nigeria for various health reasons. This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-microbial potency, acute and sub-chronic toxicities of Moringa oleifera seed extracts in rodents. The antibacterial activity of the hydro-alcohol extract of Moringa oleifera seeds were evaluated using standard methods. The acute toxicity of the extract was evaluated in Swiss albino mice by feeding the mice with the graded oral doses of the extract between 1.0 to 20.0 g/kg body weight while the graded oral doses of the extracts were administered to Wistar rats in sub-chronic toxicity evaluations. The extract revealed remarkable antimicrobial activities. In the acute toxicity, the animals fed with 15.0 and 20.0 g/kg body weight did not survive beyond 24 hours. The LD50 was 14.0 g/kg bodyweight. There was significant increase (p < 0.05) in the body weight, the serum electrolytes and the MCH values while a significant decrease in the MCV value was observed. The serum liver enzymes showed significant decrease while increase in the serum protein metabolites was observed. The high doses of the extract had some deleterious effects on the liver, kidney and testes. Although the extracts showed a good safety margin with high LD50 value (14.0 g/kg), cautions should be exercised in the consumption since higher doses or prolonged consumption may exert deleterious effects on some organs.
- ItemOpen AccessAcute and Sub-Chronic Toxicities and Antimicrobial Profiling of Hydro-Ethanol Extracts of Moringa oleifera (L) Seed in Swiss albino mice and Wistar rats(Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research ,Natural Product Research Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin., 2018-07-08) Igbokwe, N.H.; Ogbonnia, S.O.; Azubuike, C.P.; Idowu, A.O.; Orajiaka, S.C.; Ota, D.A.Seeds and nuts have been employed since the prehistoric era for their therapeutics and health benefits. Moringa oleifera (L.) is one of such seeds with poly-therapeutic activities and is consumed extensively in Nigeria for various health reasons. This study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial potency, acute and sub-chronic toxicities of Moringa oleifera seed extracts in rodents. The antibacterial activity of the hydro-alcohol extract of Moringa oleifera seeds was evaluated using standard methods. The acute toxicity of the extract was evaluated in Swiss albino mice by feeding the mice with the graded oral doses of the extract between 1.0 to 20.0 g/kg body weight while the graded oral doses of the extracts were administered to Wistar rats in sub-chronic toxicity evaluations. The extract revealed remarkable antimicrobial activities. In the acute toxicity, the animals fed with 15.0 and 20.0 g/kg body weight did not survive beyond 24 hours. The LD50 was 14.0 g/kg bodyweight. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the body weight, the serum electrolytes, and the MCH values while a significant decrease in the MCV value was observed. The serum liver enzymes showed a significant decrease while an increase in the serum protein metabolites was observed. The high doses of the extract had some deleterious effects on the liver, kidney, and testes. Although the extracts showed a good safety margin with a high LD50 value (14.0 g/kg), caution should be exercised in the consumption since higher doses or prolonged consumption may exert deleterious effects on some organs.
- ItemOpen AccessAdolescents and Young Adults knowledge, adherence and experiences while on antiretroviral therapy in a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria: a Mixed-Method Study(SAGE, 2021) Aderemi-Williams, R.I.; Razaq, A.R.; Abah, I.O.; Opanuga, O.O.; Akanmu, A.S.In Nigeria, there is a paucity of data on knowledge and experiences of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with HIV and ART, as well as their challenges maintaining optimal adherence. A mixed-method study was carried out between August and September 2018 among AYAs attending Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Data collection was via AYAs’ hospital records, standardized questionnaires, and in-depth interviews (IDIs). The 4-day ACTG tool was used to measure adherence. Collected data were analyzed descriptively. Assessment of 34 AYAs comprising 18 (52.9%) males with 28 (82.4%) students revealed an overall knowledge score about ART and its effect of 73.6%. Twenty-five (73.5%) had poor knowledge of the development of resistant strains of HIV due to non-adherence recorded. Optimal adherence (≥95%) was recorded in 20 (58.8%) AYAs. IDI produced 4 themes: (i) reasons for non-adherence, (ii) ensuring optimal adherence, (iii) Social support systems and disclosure, and (iv) stigmatization. Our study provided formative data and revealed areas for intervention to improve knowledge and adherence to ART.
- ItemOpen AccessAdvances in Intravesical drug delivery systems to treat bladder cancer(Elsevier, 2017) Kolawole, OM; Lau, WM; Khutoryanskiy, VVChemotherapeutic agents administered intravesically to treat bladder cancer have limited efficacy due to periodic dilution and wash-out during urine formation and elimination. This review describes the pathophysiology, prevalence and staging of bladder cancer, and discusses several formulation strategies used to improve drug residence within the bladder. These include the use of amphiphilic copolymers, mucoadhesive formulations, hydrogels, floating systems, and liposomes. Various in vitro and in vivo models recently employed for intravesical drug delivery studies are discussed. Some of the challenges that have prevented the clinical use of some promising formulations are identified.
- ItemOpen AccessAdverse drug reactions amongst adult patients admitted in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Lagos, Nigeria(Bentham Science, 2015) Aderemi-Williams, R.I.; Awodele, O.; Boyle, C.A.BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is a global drug therapy problem. It has been rated as one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality. In Nigeria, not much is known about ADRs especially with the existing weak post marketing surveillance for monitoring drug use, and its effect on the population. OBJECTIVES: The study is aimed at determining the incidence of ADRs, presentations of ADRs, classes of drugs that frequently cause ADRs and predictors of ADRs in adult medical in-patients in LASUTH. METHOD: A retrospective study of six hundred and twenty four (624) case notes of all patients admitted to the medical wards in LASUTH between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2009 was carried out. Information obtained included age, gender, and adverse drug reaction and drug details. The results obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical software. Level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 624 case notes consisting of 358 males and 266 females were assessed. The number of patients who experienced adverse drug reactions was 67 (n = 624, 10.7%). The incidence rate of ADRs in LASUTH from the study was 10.7 per 100 patients' population. Most of the ADRs observed were type A reactions (97.8%). Mostly implicated classes of drugs were antidiabetics (26.7%) and NSAIDs (29.3%). CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of ADRs was 10.7%. ADRs which are predictable and preventable occur in hospitalized patients, such may be prevented or minimized by implementing measures to target specific drugs that are commonly suspected.
- ItemOpen AccessAdverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) Of Covid-19 Vaccine In Some Health Facilities In Lagos State.(Pharmaceutical Society of Nigeria, 2021) Adekuoye A.S; Oreagba I.A; Aina B.ATexts attached
- ItemOpen AccessAflatoxin Contamination of Arachis hypogaea (Groundnuts) in Lagos Area of Nigeria(Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2003) Thomas A.E.; Coker H.A.B.; Odukoya O.A.; Isamah G.K.; Adepoju-Bello A.Human populations are exposed to aflatoxins as a result of the consumption of commodities particularly grams and nuts) that have been directly contaminated by the aflatoxin producing strains of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergilus parasiticus during growth, harvest or storage (Busby and Wogan 1984). The occurrence and magnitude of aflatoxins contamination varies also with geographical and seasonal factors. Crops in tropical and subtropical areas are more susceptible to contamination than those in temperate regions, since optimal conditions for toxin formation are prevalent in areas with high humidity and temperature (Diener and Davis 1969). Grains and food stuffs capable of being contaminated with aflatoxins have been reported by Busby and Wogan and the level of contamination can vary from less than lppb to over 12ppb. In Nigeria, grains like groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea) have become a staple food among the populace and there is need to consider the sporadic nature of the infestation of these nuts. In this study, the level of aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts (roasted, steamed and raw), was evaluated, using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatographic methods.
- ItemOpen AccessAfrican Oils in Dermatology. Dermatologic Therapy.(WILEY, 2021) AYANLOWO, Olusola; COLE-ADEIFE, O; ILOMUANYA, Margaret; EBIE, C; ADEGBULU, A; EZEANYACHE, O; ODIASE, O; IKEBUDU, V; AKANBI, BPlant and seed oils have been used for centuries and possibly millennia in Nigeria and Africa for the maintenance of healthy skin and the traditional treatment of skin disorders. In recent times, some of these oils have regained popularity due to their availability and affordability coupled with concerns about the side effects of commercially processed skin care products. This is to assess the chemical properties, current knowledge, source of procurement, indications for topical use, benefits, and possible adverse effects of six plant oils and one animal fat commonly used in Nigeria. This is a literature review and interview with traditional healers and alternative health practitioners to document the traditional, medical, cosmetics, and other usage of oils for skin and scalp care in the African context. Literature review was done on the biochemical and pharmacological properties of each of the seven oils. Searches were made from PubMed, African Journal online, Medline, and Google scholar. Medical subject heading terms used in the search include shea butter, coconut oil, palm kernel oil, palm oil, soy oil, Baobab oil, and python oil. Plant and seed oils used locally in Nigeria and other African countries for skin care and treatment have several benefits due to the constituents of the plant oils (free fatty acids, triglycerides, ceramides, phospholipids, vitamins and antioxidants) which have been shown to promote healthy skin barrier function, wound healing and have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. They are however not without adverse effects, which may be mainly due to processing and storage hygiene. Further studies are required on these oils in view of their potential in the development of novel skincare products and dermatological therapies.
- ItemOpen AccessAfrican Women Scientists' COVID-Related Experiences: Reflecting on the Challenges and Suggesting Ways Forward(Michigan State University Press, Alliance for African Partnership Perspectives, Volume 1, 2021: African Universities and the COVID-19 Pandemic, pp. 89-100 (Article), 2021) Babalola, O.O; Alaribe, S.C.; Olatunji, O.A.; Bigambo, P.N; Babalola, S.S.; Amoo, A.E.; Kutu, M.O.; Katoti, I.; Mufhandu, H.T.; Imarfidor, H.O.The COVID-19 pandemic has intensified the traditional gender power inequalities faced by women daily and has left humanity sad and overwhelmed with fear. Before our very eyes, most countries are confused and frequently shutting down outdoor activities such as schools, colleges, universities, places of worship, and markets, leaving people with no choice but to work from home. The situation has particularly adversely affected the Women Scientists at the forefront of discoveries and innovations through science. This article reveals the experiences and challenges faced by Women Scientists due to the pandemic outbreak, more especially burdened with additional roles of taking care of others besides themselves. Furthermore, the work reflects how African women can be encouraged to enter and remain in their scientific careers. African female scientists make up approximately 31 percent of researchers on the continent. They, therefore, have critical roles in Africa's development. The review suggests various ways in which African governments, international organizations, African universities, and communities could develop programs and initiatives to address multiple issues raised so that women could pursue careers in the sciences—and remain in these careers to advance development on the continent.
- ItemOpen AccessAmeliorative influence of atorvastatin in transgenic Drosophila Melanogaster model of neurodegenerative diseases(Pharmaceutical Society of Nigeria, 2021-03-31) Ishola, I.O.; Badru, W.A.; Ofi, E.O.; Akinleye, M.O.; Adeyemi, O.O.Background: The common features in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) (two most common neurodegenerative diseases) are chronic and progressive aggregation and accumulation of misfolded proteins (amyloid-beta and tau proteins in AD as well as α-synuclein in PD) leading to the destruction of vulnerable neurons and synaptic connections and ultimately neuronal cell death brain mass loss. Despite our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms implicated in AD and PD pathogenesis and primary target of therapeutic intervention being the misfolded protein aggregates, no efficient treatments are available. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila), is a valuable model organism for neurodegenerative disease owing to its short lifespan and plethora of genetic tools for exquisite targeted manipulation of the genome. Thus, in this study the protective action of atorvastatin on genetic model of AD and PD in mice. Methods: To model PD and AD in Drosophila, the bipartite system of GAL4 transcriptional activator was placed under a cell-type specific promoter; embryonic lethal abnormal visual systemGAL4 (ELAV-GAL4) or dopa decarboxylase (Ddc-GAL4) for expression of amyloid-beta (Aβ42) or α-synuclein, respectively, under the control of the upstream activating sequence (UAS) in Drosophila. The flies were was either maintained on media supplemented with vehicle or atorvastatin (85, 170 or 340µM; HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor – antihyperlipidemic drug). The effect of treatments on larva motility, climbing activity, fecundity and lifespan were recorded. Results: Supplementation of fly media with different concentration of atorvastatin ameliorated the deficits in larva motility and climbing activity. Moreover, supplementation of fly media with atorvastatin prolonged the survival of drosophila but atorvastatin (384µM) reduced fecundity. Conclusion: Findings from this study showed that atorvastatin improved spontaneous motor activity and prolonged lifespan in Drosophila possibly through reduction of misfolded protein aggregates
- ItemOpen AccessAmeliorative influence of vildagliptin on genetic model of neurodegenerative diseases in Drosophila melanogaster(Pharmaceutical Society of Nigeria, 2021-09-30) Ishola, I.O.; Afolayan, O.; Akinleye, M.O.; Nwajei, W.I.; Adeyemi, O.O.; Mishra, R.K.Background: Neurodegenerative disorders (ND) are characterized by progressive loss of selectively vulnerable populations of neurons, which contrasts with select static neuronal loss. Self-association of amyloid-beta (Aβ) or α-synuclein peptides into fibrils and/or plaque like aggregates causes neurotoxicity. Hence, identification of specific compounds that either inhibit the formation of Aβ or α syn-fibrils makes an appealing therapeutic strategy in the development of drugs. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of vildagliptin (VDG) (oral hypoglycemic agent) on genetic models of ND in Drosophila melanogaster. Methods: The disease causing human Aβ42 peptide or α-syn was expressed pan-neuronally (elav GAL4) or dopamine neurons (DDC-GAL4) using the UAS-GAL4 system. Flies were either grown in food media with or without vildagliptin (1, 5, or 10µM). This was followed by fecundity, larva motility and negative geotaxis assay (climbing) as a measure of neurodegeneration. Results: Elav-Gal4
- ItemOpen AccessAnalgesic and Antioxidant Activities of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus(Wolters Kluwer ‑Medknow, 2016) Orabueze, C.I.; Adesegun, S.A.; Coker, H.ABackground: Petersianthus macrocarpus(Lecythidaceae) is widely used in the folk medicine in Nigeria to relieve pain and fever associated with malaria. This study evaluated the analgesic and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract and fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Materials and Methods:The analgesic activity was determined in mice using hotplate and acetic acid‑induced writhing models. Morphine sulphate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and aspirin (100 mg/ml, p.o.) were used as reference analgesic agents. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 1,1‑diphenyl‑2‑picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; reducing power, iron chelating properties and determination of total phenolic content. Results:The extract at 200 and 500 mg/kg, produced an insignificant (P> 0.05) increase in pain threshold in hotplate but a significant (P< 0.05) increase at 1000 mg/kg. The extract significantly (P< 0.05) reduced the writhing induced by acetic acid in mice in a dose dependent manner. Fractionation increased the analgesic activities significantly (P< 0.05) in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (200 mg/kg). The extract demonstrated strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC 50 0.05 mg/ml, good reducing power and weak iron chelating activities. The total phenol content was 142.32 mg/gin term of gallic acid. The antioxidant effects were more pronounced in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that the extract has strong analgesic and antioxidant activities which reside mainly in the polar fractions thus confirming the traditional use of the plant to alleviate pains.
- ItemOpen AccessAnalysis of Fifteen Brands of Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride tablets obtained from Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.(The Nigeria Journal of Pharmacy, 2010) Adepoju-Bello A.A.; Ayoola G.A.; Coker H.A.B.The importance of ciprofloxacin especially in the third world countries can be estimated by the high success rate recorded in some high morbidity and mortality ailments. It is then necessary that the various brands of ciprofloxacin in the market must contain the adequate amount of active ingredient as specified in the official pharmacopoeias. A well formulated dosage form of ciprofloxacin ensures that adequate amount of the active constituent of the drug is delivered to the recipient to produce the desired pharmacological response. A substandard formulated dosage form of ciprofloxacin will not produce the desired pharmacological response. This research was carried out to evaluate the physical qualities and percentage purities of some brands of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in the Nigerian market. The British Pharmacopoeia (B.P) and United States Pharmacopoeia (U.S.P) methods were adopted for the physicochemical tests -weight uniformity, disintegration, friability and dissolution tests. Ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometric calibration plot method was developed for the quantitative assay. The concentration of each brand was derived from the regression equation obtained from the calibration plot. The results obtained showed that 100% of the brands conformed to the physicochemical compendia standards. According to the U.S.P. specification (90-110%), 73.33% of the brands analysed passed the quantitative assay, 26.67% failed (6.67% were below the U .S.P. range and 20.00% were above the range). Conformity of drugs to compendia requirements is very crucial to ensure that the adequate amount of drug required to elicit their pharmacological effect gets to its site of action. Lack of regular electricity supply is affecting the proper storage of drugs resulting in fast decomposition of drugs before the expiry date. Therefore, a regular analysis of drugs is necessary to ensure the administration of quality drugs for effective treatment with the desired result. All the brands analysed passed the physicochemical assay according to the compendia requirement but only 73.33% of the brands passed the quantitative assay, 26.67% failed (6.67% were below the U.S.P. range and 20.00% were above the range). Researchers should continue to carry out physicochemical tests and quantitative assay regularly on drugs manufactured within the country and those imported into the country to ensure that all drugs circulating in the country at any point in time conform to the compendia requirements.
- ItemOpen AccessAnalysis of Organochlorine pesticide residues in beans(West African Journal of Pharmacy, 2012) Ogah C.O.; Coker H.B.; Adepoju-Bello A.A.Background: Analysis of pesticide residues in food is one way to determine the level of human exposure to these chemicals and hence their potential human health hazards. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the incidence and quantity of organochlorine pesticide residues in beans samples collected from various markets in Lagos State and compare values obtained withestablished safety values. Methods: Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) samples purchased from different markets in Lagos State were analyzedfor residues of organochlorine pesticides using gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric detector (GC-MS)after careful extraction and cleanup. Results: The results showed that all the beans samples contained residues of one or more organochlorine pesticides. Mean concentrations ranged from 5.8-35.1μg/kg and maximum residue limits (MRLs) of some pesticides were exceeded in up to 8% of samples. The estimated total diet intakes (ETDIs) for aldrin and dieldrinexceeded their maximum permissible intakes (MPIs) by 100% and 17% respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that residues of organochlorine pesticides are present in beans in Lagos markets andsome are above safety levels.
- ItemOpen AccessAnalysis of selected metallic impurities in soft drinks marketed in Lagos, Nigeria(African Journal of Biotechnology, 2012) Adepoju-Bello A.A.; Oguntibeju O.O.; Onuegbu M.T.; Ayoola G.A.; Coker H.A.B.Twenty brands of soft drinks commonly consumed in Lagos, Nigeria were analyzed for lead, cadmium, nickel, silver, chromium and zinc using standard biochemical procedures. The aim was to determine whether the concentrations of toxic metals in commonly consumed soft drinks are below or above the upper limit for each of the metals as set by World Health Organization (WHO). Results showed that cadmium was present in four of the samples at a concentration ranging from 0.023 to 0.158 mg/L, lead was present in three of the samples at a concentration ranging from 0.5045 to 3.0275 mg/L, nickel was present in six of the samples at a concentration ranging from 0.016 to 0.063 mg/L while silver was absent in all of the samples. Some of the samples analyzed can be said to be safe for human consumption because the values of the metals were below the allowable limits as set by WHO while others could not be said to be safe as the levels of metals were above the allowable limits set by WHO. Therefore, it is suggested that health authorities and soft drink producing companies should pay more attention to the sources of these metals in soft drinks.
- ItemOpen AccessAnalysis of some selected toxic metals and pesticide residues in ofada rice (oryza sativa l.) samples produced in south western region of Nigeria.(Journal of Industrial Research and Technology, 2019) Adepoju-Bello A.A.; Oyawaluja B.O.; Sosanya D.G.Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important cereal crop in the developing world and is the staple food of over half the world's population. It is generally considered a semi-aquatic annual grass plant. About 20 species of the genus are recognized, but nearly all cultivated rice is O. sativa L. thus the need to evaluate the toxic metal and pesticide content. This study aim to determine the concentration of heavy metals and pesticide residues in ofada rice samples obtained from major markets in 10 local governments in Lagos state, Nigeria. The rice samples were digested using concentrated nitric acid and the digested samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The extractions of the pesticides from the rice samples were done using QuEChERS method of extraction. Fifteen types of pesticides were analyzed using the GC-MS. The result showed that all the metals were present in the rice samples. The concentration of lead in each sample ranged from 0.054-0.139μg/g, Copper 1.265-27.652μg/g, Arsenic 0.080-0.207μg/g, Mercury 0.039-0.093μg/g, and Cadmium 0.255-0.650μg/g. The Oral Component Limit for lead, copper, arsenic, mercury and cadmium as stated by the USP are 1 μg/g, 250 μg/g, 1.5 μg/g, 1.5 μg/g, 0.5 μg/g respectively. All the metals except cadmium in 3 samples have concentrations below the USP. The rice sample had no detectable amount of pesticide residue as the concentrations are below detection limit. All the samples contained detectable amount of the metal of interest suggesting significant risk to consumers considering the toxicity and half-lives of heavy metals. Keywords: Ofada, heavy metals, pesticides, Lagos, spectrophotometer, GCMS
- ItemRestrictedAnalysis of some selected toxic metals in registered herbal products manufactured in Nigeria(African Journal of Biotechnology, 2012) Adepoju-Bello A.A.; Issa O.A.; Oguntibeju O.O.; Ayoola G.A.; Adejumo O.O.The use of herbal medicine has been on the increase in many developing and industrialized countries and Nigerians in particular has been using herbal medicine or many centuries. The approval of these herbal remedies by regulatory bodies has further encouraged the use of herbal remedies. The safety of these herbal remedies is however poorly understood. This study investigated the concentration of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in twenty registered ready to use herbal products. Twenty brands of herbal remedies were purchased randomly from the Pharmacy shops in Lagos, digested with aquaregia (3:1 HCl: HNO3) and were analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (Buck 205 AtomicAbsorption Spectrophotometer). There was no detectable lead in any of the 20 herbal samples; however, all the samples contained a detectable amount of one or more of the other metals of interest. The Oral Component Limit (OCL) for arsenic, cadmium and mercury as stated by USP are 1.5, 0.5 and 1.5 μg/g, respectively. All the samples contained arsenic and mercury below the USP OCL, while sixtyfive percent contained cadmium out of which fifty-five percent were above USP OCL. The results obtained from this study suggest a significant risk to consumers’ health considering the toxicity of these heavy metals.
- ItemOpen AccessAnatomization of Mortality Trends in under-twelves in a Tertiary Hospital in Eastern Nigeria” A cross sectional Evaluation(2019) Ogbonna, B.O.; Adijeh, C.M.; Onwuchuluba, E. E.; Eze, U.I.H.; Onyeka, T.; Uzodinma, S.U.; Ofomata, P.C.; Iweh, M.I.; Ajagu, N.; Isidienu, C.P.; Ogbonna, A.C.; Ejim, C.E.Background: The childhood age group is a special population that needs critical and special care. The increase in death tolls in children globally, owing majorly to preventable and treatable causes and diseases is a burden and requires urgent and immediate attention and action to ensure sustainable progress towards achieving child survival goals. This study assessed the mortality pattern of under-12 and discussed the associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective descriptive study of 4 years which spanned from January 2014 to December 2017 was carried out on the records of dead children who were 12 years and below using the death register at the health care facility. The data were summarized with descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: A total of 1004 under-12 deaths were recorded: 255, 218, 291, and 240 deaths occurred in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017. Children between ages 0-1 had the highest death record 819 (81.6%). A higher death rate was observed among male children 569.0 (56.5%) compared to female children 438.0 (43.5%). Diagnosed diseases that led to their death ranged from sepsis, birth asphyxia, malaria, gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory/ pulmonary disorders, prematurity, anemia, and genetic disorders. Death due to sepsis, septicemia, and septic shock had the highest percentage with frequency and percentage prevalence of 159.0 (15.8%). while birth/perinatal/neonatal asphyxia, prematurity was high. Conclusion: Male children below one year were the most affected. Sepsis, septicemia, septic shock; prematurity/preterm, and Birth/perinatal/neonatal asphyxia, birth trauma, and seizures were the leading causes of death in the population. The highest death was recorded at the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU), and Children Emergency Room (CHER). Study suggests that the leading causes of death among children in this study are still prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa.