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    Open Access
    The Challenges of Africa’s Coronavirus Pandemic and China’s Soft Power Dynamics: An Overview
    (LASU Journal of History & International Studies (LAJOHIS), A publication of the Department of History & International Studies, Faculty of Arts, Lagos State University, 2024-04-30) Banwo, A. O.; Osiki, O. M
    This study examines Chinese soft power dynamics in Africa with respect to how the continent approached the challenges posed by the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. It should be stressed that China’s soft power politics stems from its ability to champion globalization and economic integration from Asia to the rest of the world. China has used its soft power elements such as culture, ideology, legitimacy, and ability to attract others to project its power on the African continent and this came into play during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data for this research work were obtained through critical case sampling and the content analysis style was used for the interpretation of data in the study. Certain factors such as diplomacy, aid, medical assistance, international relations, and status were selected for the study. This study adopts Todd Hall’s theory of institutional power, reputation power, and presentational power to underscore the relevance of China’s soft power intervention in Africa. Hall ascertains that certain States use their power to influence and advance state interests while pushing for public diplomacy and information control. Therefore, this work argues that China’s intervention in Africa’s COVID-19 pandemic effort was a way to enhance the Sino-African relationship while exhibiting and improving its international image and status. It concludes on the note that China’s positive attraction and agenda for Africa has a lot of benefits and consequences which will affect Africa’s foreign policy and approach in the nearest future.
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    Open Access
    ENTREPRENEURSHIP CHALLENGES IN COVID-19 ERA: A CASE-STUDY OF NIGERIAN AND CHINESE ENTREPRENEURS
    (Eureka-Unilag, A Journal of the Department of European Languages and Integration Studies, Faculty of Arts, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria. A Special Edition in Honour of Unionmwan Edebiri, 2023-08-06) Banwo, A. O.
    This study examines the influence of the Coronavirus pandemic on the entrepreneurial nature of two countries, Nigeria and China. The outbreak of the pandemic has sent rippling effects on the economic activities of most nations like Nigeria and China. This work argues that entrepreneurs can flourish when the environment is conducive for business to thrive. Government response to COVID-19 resulted in the formulation of certain policies such as lockdowns, containment, isolation, and travel bans to further prevent the spread of the disease. These policies have a catastrophic effect on entrepreneurs who are seen as the drivers and innovators of the economy. Data for this work were obtained through homogenous purpose sampling and analyzed through content analysis. Resource materials related to coronavirus, entrepreneurship, methods, and style were downloaded from the internet and were selected for the study. This work adopts the Psychological and Integrated Models as its theoretical framework. It recognizes entrepreneurship skills to include strategic thinking, risk-taking, motivation, and efficiency. Others include resilience, concise communication, networking skills, and finance management. This study agrees with social scientists who have asserted that the government has a responsibility to provide a conducive, safe, and healthy environment for people to engage in any form of economic activity. It suggests that a favorable economic or political climate would ensure that the means of production are adopted by entrepreneurs. This study concludes that coronavirus shocks and effects on entrepreneurs are calamitous and disastrous and as such business procedures and innovation of goods and services have been hindered greatly.
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    Open Access
    Contextualizing the Supreme Being in Yoruba and Chinese Cultures
    (LASU Journal of African Studies (OPANBATA), A Publication of African Languages, Literature & Communication Arts, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State, 2022-08-01) Banwo, A. O.
    This paper intends to examine the Yorùbá and the Chinese context of a Supreme Being within framework of their cultures. In Yorùbá culture, the Supreme Being is connoted as Olódùmarè, Oló-dú-ma- ré, Olú-ọ̀run or Elédùmarè. He signifies one thing, the owner of the universe and the Supreme God. In Chinese culture, the highest deity is called Shangdi or Di. He is the high god or clan ancestor as postulated in the earliest-known religious system of the Han Chinese people. The term has different connotations, while some can perceive or translate him as the “emperor” or “sovereign above,” others see him as “lord on high,” “highest lord,” “the supreme god,” or the “celestial lord.” Data for this research were obtained through homogeneous purpose sampling and analyzed through content analysis. Supreme power, myths, uniqueness, cultural trait and cultural identity were all factors selected for this study. The theory of religion serves as the framework for this study. This research work identifies theory of evolution, belief, supreme power, tradition, myths and divinities as core factors that has created the Supreme Being in both cultures. Supreme Being in both cultures serve a purpose, they control the universe, they create man and they are in absolute control of the affairs of man. Man looks up to them for prosperity, health and decision-making processes. This work suggests that the physical world is guided and controlled by the spiritual realm and concludes that for the harmony of humanity, man must work in accordance and tenets of the spiritual realm.
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    Open Access
    Covid-19 Impacts on China-Nigeria Education and Cultural Exchanges
    (Africa & Diaspora Discourse, A Journal of the Institute of African and Diaspora Studies, University of Lagos., 2022-09-27) Banwo, A. O.
    The rapid development and modernization of China today have pushed it into the realm of an economic global power that is facilitating investment in many countries of the world including Nigeria. Nigeria, a resource-endowed country has become the largest trading partner for China, making them bedfellows with their different agendas and programs. China’s investment in Nigeria goes beyond resources, it is well exhibited by inviting Nigerian students to learn and imbibe Chinese education and knowledge first-hand. The outbreak of Coronavirus (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China posed a threat to the cultural and educational exchange programs that exist between China and Nigeria. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to identify how the Coronavirus epidemic has affected or influenced the cultural and educational exchange programs between China and Nigeria. Data for this paper were obtained using the historical descriptive method and content analysis was used to study this work. Certain factors such as diplomacy, aid, soft power, skill transfer, acquisition, and development were selected for study in this work. This research work adopts the Social Exchange Theory as the framework to comprehend this study and ascertains that certain states make calculations to gain more benefits from their actions. It argues that Chinese investment in the Nigerian educational sector goes beyond any form of sympathy or empathy but it hinges on the platform of certain rewards, values, gains, benefits, human learning, social progress, and international cooperation. It discerns that a good educational background can help Nigerians create wealth and employment opportunities while eliminating poverty and crime rates. Thus, China-Nigerian educational exchanges have the full prospects of a positive policy aimed at alleviating the challenges of Nigeria. This work concludes that Chinese investment in Nigerian education aims to bolster bilateral cooperation between the two countries while aiding China’s show of its soft power in the continent. Keywords: Diplomacy, soft power, Skill transfer, Acquisition, and Development.
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    Open Access
    Symbolic Meanings of Colors in Cultures
    (Ife Journal of Languages and Literatures, Department of Linguistics and African Languages, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, Vol 7, No. 1, ISSN 2467-8635, 2021-06-25) Banwo, A. O.
    Since the early Palaeolithic era, colours have always been part of human life and they have been important images that have shaped the normal existence of our civilisation today. Colours across cultures have been found to influence human perceptions and their mode of communication verbally or non-verbally. The fact remains that different cultures associate’ different notions to colours and these values are deeply crafted in the subconscious mind of the people in these cultures. This study examines the symbolic meaning of different colours in two diverse cultures and societies while understanding that colours hold strong expressive connotations and psychological differences. Data for this research work were obtained through critical case sampling and content analysis was used to study this work. Certain factors such as mythical, religious, historical and cultural meanings were selected for this work. This study adopts the symbolic interactionism theory as conceived by George Herbert Mead and Charles Horlon Cooley. Symbolic interactionists whose main focus were on the micro-level aspects of culture but also centre their attention on how culture is sustained through symbols, values, norms, ideas and objects because they are core elements in which humans use to reinforce and create social realities. Therefore, this work argues that symbolic connotations of colours are universal and are reinforced through human social interaction and their perceptions. It concludes that colours as societal symbols have a large influence on human behaviour and beliefs thereby influencing societal actions and values.