The phytochemistry and gastroprotective activities of the leaves of Ficus glumosa
Ficus glumosa is reputed for the treatment and management of various health conditions, including diarrhoea, dysentery, oedema, headache, stomach ailments and ulcers. Three phenolic acids (1–3), two coumarins (4 and 5), three ﬂavonoid glycosides (6, 7a, 7b) and ﬁve triterpenoids (8–12) were isolated from the aerial parts of F. glumosa. Gastroprotective activity of the methanol soluble extract of the leaves was apparent at 200 mg kg−1 with signiﬁcant protection in ethanol, indomethacin and pylorus-induced experimental ulcer models. The extract was shown to be non-toxic at 2 g kg−1. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (isoquercitrin) 7a, quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside 7b and p-hydroxybenzoic acid 1 isolated from the leaf extract probably play a role in the observed gastroprotective activity. The ﬁndings in this study validate the use of F. glumosa in the treatment of ulcers in African ethnomedicine.