Browsing Department of Employment Relations & Human Resource Management by Issue Date
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- ItemOpen AccessEducational Attainment, Formal Employment and Contraceptives Practices among Working Women in Lagos State University(2005) Okafor, E.E; Akinwale, A.AOver the years the international attention has been focused on women empowerment and how to improve their socio-economic status by reducing the heavy burden of large family size through the use of contraceptives. Despite this, many women still suffer discriminations, burden of large family size and all kinds of abuses. Most Nigerian educated women are not insulated from this problem thereby predisposing them to abuses in different facets of life. Based on this, the study examines educational attainment, formal employment and contraceptives practices among working women in Lagos State University. Survey design was adopted for the study. Using Stratified and simple random sampling techniques, quantitative data was gathered through the administration of structured questionnaires in the study population. A total of ninety-five structured questionnaires were distributed to the working women aged 25-60 years. Frequency distribution and chi-square techniques were used for data analysis. The result showed that the majority of the educated women prefer small family size due to occupational stress and domestic responsibilities. The findings also revealed that the desire to limit family size is mainly a function of women level of education and formal employment. However, the majority of the respondents attributed women abuses to the age long patriarchy, which remains unabated. Therefore, this study recommends the need to facilitate women education and economic empowerment through reliable social policy in order to provide alternative to women illiteracy and under representation in the labour market.
- ItemOpen AccessIndustrial relations in the oil industry in Nigeria.(2005) Fajana, S.Oil and gas are essential components of industrialized civilization and economic growth. Although automation has reduced the need for a considerable amount of manual work, important components still rely on human input. Good employer-employee relations are, therefore, critical to the stable production and supply of crude oil for the sustainable development of the Nigerian economy, as well as to the world economy as a whole. The aim of this paper is to explore practices in industrial relations and social dialogue in the oil industry in Nigeria. The paper examines essential elements for good industrial relations in the sector. It addresses such topics as the positive contribution social dialogue can make towards promoting mutual respect, trust and confidence between the social partners and the Government ofNigeria.
- ItemOpen AccessApprenticeship Scheme and Small-Scale Business: a study of selected Apprentices and their Masters in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria(Medwell Online, 2006) Akinwale, A.A; Okafor, E.EConsidering the prevailing socio-economic situations and increasing unemployment in Nigeria, the demand for apprenticeship scheme and small-scale business would rise. Thus the thrust of this study is apprenticeship scheme and small-scale business in Nigeria using Lagos state as study area. The study was situated within the ambit of Marxist Labour Surplus Theory and Weber’s Social Action. A multi-stage method involving stratified and simple random sampling techniques was adopted and data were source through questionnaire and in-depth interviews administered to 96 Apprentices and 24 Masters in Badagry and Lagos Island areas of Lagos State. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The findings showed that both the Apprentices and their Masters varied in terms of their socio-demographic characteristics. Further the findings showed that the amount of capital available to start a business would be a determinant of apprenticeship willingness to create self-employment and that an alternative avenue for employment and income would not be preferred to apprenticeship in a trade that holds economic promise. Moreover, the data showed that the survival of small-scale business in Nigeria would depend on apprenticeship skills and available facilities. Consequently, the study recommended that Nigeria’s immediate steps should centre on not only making funds available, accessible and affordable, but also putting the necessary infrastructure on ground and creating an enabling environment for the operation of small-scale businesses.
- ItemOpen AccessGender, Urbanization and Socio-Economic Development(University Press of America, Inc., 2006) Atere, A.A; Akinwale, A.AFull texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessFeminization of Underdevelopment in Nigeria: Some Theoretical Issues(2007) Akinwale, A.A; Okafor, E.E; Doyin-Hassan, AThis paper attempts to critically and theoretically examine the socio-economic and political situations of women in an underdeveloped patriarchal society like Nigeria and argued that the situation has not changed for the better for many women. More women than men suffer from underdevelopment. When we consider gender inequality in development, the gender sensitive policies formulated to tackle this problem appeared to have produced little or no impact on many of the Nigerian women. The paper concludes by stressing that for women to be made veritable instrument for development, the age long cultural practices such as early marriage, occupational gender segregation, sex preference and female genital mutilation that inhibit women’s contribution to development must be adequately addressed by government and non- governmental organizations.
- ItemOpen AccessCareer Pathways and Youth Metamorphosis into Area Boys in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria(2008) Akinwale, A.AApplying Bourdieu\'s cultural capital theory, this paper examined why youth meandered across career pathways and metamorphosed into area boys. Data were drawn from a three-year unobtrusive observation and an In-depth Interview with 60 area boys purposively selected from 5 Local Governments Areas in Lagos metropolis. Their narratives were analyzed through ZY Index and ethnographic techniques. Their educational attainment was generally low. Two-third did not complete their secondary education and more than half had acquired skills in different informal sector vocations. In the contexts of incomplete education and low motivation for career advancement different themes emerged: family disorganization, distress and depression, drifting away from schools, elongation of deprivation and determination for survival through available opportunities. Youth metamorphosis into area boys was found within structural forces including family disorganization, academic failure and poor career orientation. Unexpectedly, obedience to patron-client agencies and resistance against state policies reflect in their understanding of area boys business. Therefore addressing the menace of area boys should move beyond the manifest actors to a more robust understanding of the seemingly powerful networks sustaining them. Fundamentally, exploring and reversing the career pathways of area boys may improve their socio-economic conditions and redeem the Nigerian image in the global arena.
- ItemOpen AccessTraditional Socio-Cultural Systems as Models for Stability and Security in Nigeria(2008) Aderinto, A.A; Akinwale, A.AThis paper examines the necessity of traditional sociocultural systems for stability and security in Nigeria. The authors argue that despite the incorporation of Western values into traditional social institutions, indigenous values remain strong. Further, the mixture of traditional and Western values has created dilemmas which affect stability and security in Nigerian society. Traditional communities that are on the receiving end of development projects may accept, reject, or partially accept and partially reject the imposition of external values, as exemplified in the case of a World Bank goat breeding project in Brazil. The authors conclude that the indigenous knowledge system is very important and should be utilized to promote stability, security and development. Models of the creative use of culture for promoting stability and security include the African kinship system, extended family networks, and integrity, traditional militia organizations and the Obudu Youth Movement, and the Harambee model of solidarity in Kenya.
- ItemOpen AccessReviving African Values: A Viable Alternative to Disarticulated Development and African Arts and Civilization(Centre forBlack and african, 2009) Akinwale, A.AFull texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessManifestation of Human Sexuality and its relevance to Secondary Schools in Nigeria(2009) Akinwale, A.AThe alarms against the menace of premarital sexual activities reached a crescendo but the behaviour of young people remained at variance with the alarms. This contradiction contributed to the growth of sexually transmitted diseases including human immune virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Thus, this study examined manifestation of human sexuality and its relevance to secondary schools in Nigeria using information derived from content analysis of secondary data. Results principally showed that human sexuality extended beyond procreation as it captured all the nuances of the socio-cultural contexts of a society. Different sexualities such as child sexuality, adolescent sexuality, adult sexuality and sexuality of the elderly produced specific implications for the entire society. Conclusively, understanding of the interdependent layers of human sexuality would promote the management of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV and AIDS. Therefore, it was recommended that sexuality education should be emphasized in the socialization from infancy till death. Nobody would be too young or old for learning human sexuality. Critical steps should be taken to empower students towards scanning their sexual histories and acquiring the right skills to manage any detected or potential sexual problem.
- ItemOpen AccessRe-Engineering the Ndcc’s Master Plan: an Analytical Approach(Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, 2009) Akinwale, A.A; Osabuohien, EThis paper examined the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC)’s master plan, which promised different programmes such as: employment generation, education, and health, among others. The authors reviewed competing analysis of the extant development policies and conclude that the NDDC’s master plan is not radically different from the extant policies and may aggravate the antimonies to development in the region. If lasting solution to the lingering crisis in the Niger Delta is desired, it is essential to positively utilize combined powers of local organizations. Ultimately, rather than romancing with military and political approaches that have not engendered sustainable development, the people who live with and whose lives are directly affected by the Niger Delta crisis should be reckoned with in arresting the crisis and positively transforming the region.
- ItemOpen AccessManifestation Of Human Sexuality And Its Relevance To Secondary Schools In Nigeria(Academic Journals, 2009) Akinwale, A.AThe alarms against the menace of premarital sexual activities reached a crescendo but the behaviour of young people remained at variance with the alarms. This contradiction contributed to the growth of sexually transmitted diseases including human immune virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Thus, this study examined manifestation of human sexuality and its relevance to secondary schools in Nigeria using information derived from content analysis of secondary data. Results principally showed that human sexuality extended beyond procreation as it captured all the nuances of the socio-cultural contexts of a society. Different sexualities such as child sexuality, adolescent sexuality, adult sexuality and sexuality of the elderly produced specific implications for the entire society. Conclusively, understanding of the interdependent layers of human sexuality would promote the management of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV and AIDS. Therefore, it was recommended that sexuality education should be emphasized in the socialization from infancy till death. Nobody would be too young or old for learning human sexuality. Critical steps should be taken to empower students towards scanning their sexual histories and acquiring the right skills to manage any detected or potential sexual problem.
- ItemOpen AccessReengineering the NDDs Master Plan: An analytical Approach(2009) Akinwale, A.A; Osabuohien, EThis paper examined the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC)’s master plan, which promised different programmes such as: employment generation, education, and health, among others. The authors reviewed competing analysis of the extant development policies and conclude that the NDDC’s master plan is not radically different from the extant policies and may aggravate the antimonies to development in the region. If lasting solution to the lingering crisis in the Niger Delta is desired, it is essential to positively utilize combined powers of local organizations. Ultimately, rather than romancing with military and political approaches that have not engendered sustainable development, the people who live with and whose lives are directly affected by the Niger Delta crisis should be reckoned with in arresting the crisis and positively transforming the region.
- ItemOpen AccessAwareness of STIs and Contraceptives Use among Out-of-School Youths in Nigeria(2009) Atere, A.A; Wahab, E.O; Ajiboye, O.E; Shokoya, H.O; Akinwale, A.A; Oyenuga, A.SThe educational system in Nigeria is characterised by high incidence of dropping out of schools with adverse implications for the youths, who are sexually hyperactive without adequate knowledge about reproductive health decision making. What are the factors influencing contraceptive practices among out of school youths? These and other questions are what the study is set out to address. Triangulation of both quantitative and qualitative techniques was employed for data collection. Specifically, 200 individual based questionnaires were employed for collecting quantitative data from the youths, while 4 in-depth interviews (2 each-1 male and 1 female on youths and adults) and 4 focus group discussions (2 each- 1 male and 1 female on youths and adults) were employed for collecting qualitative data. In terms of data analysis, frequency distribution and chisquare (at 0.05 alpha level of significance) were employed for quantitative data, while content analysis and ethnographic summary were used for qualitative data. The results showed high awareness about STIs and HIV/AIDS but low level of contraceptive practices among the majority of out-of-school youths in the study area. It was found that many out-of school youths engaged in risky sexual behaviour with prevalence of unprotected sexual intercourse. However, the results of cross tabulation showed that the level of awareness about STIs and HIV/AIDS and contraceptive practices were significantly influenced by socio-demographic characteristics (education, sex, income and marital status). Considering the adverse implications of STIs and HIV/AIDS on sustainable human development, contraceptive use should be promoted among out of school youths in motor parks.
- ItemOpen AccessCurtailing Conflicts in the Resource-Endowed Niger Delta Communities of Nigeria(2009-03) Akinwale, A.AViolent conflicts remain unabated in the Niger Delta communities of Nigeria, despite the efforts of successive governments and international organizations to broker peace in the area. How have the Niger Delta communities, the Nigerian State, and multinational oil corporations managed the crisis? What are the forces fuelling the crisis and what may be a lasting solution? This article addresses these questions on the basis of an analysis of earlier studies of the conflict and interviews conducted with stakeholders in four oil-producing Niger Delta communities. The findings reveal that opinions about conflict resolution mechanisms differ among the various groups. While government officials and oil companies were optimistic about mechanisms for conflict control, youth activists and religious leaders identified structural barriers to conflict resolution such as failing intervention efforts, increasing hostage taking by militants, and inadequate infrastructure. The article concludes with strong recommendations.
- ItemOpen AccessTheories of Comparative Management.(Concept Publications Limited 77, Shipeolu Street, Palmgrove, Lagos., 2010) Gbadamosi, A.; Kuye, O.L.; Adeoye, A.O.
- ItemOpen AccessRepression of Press Freedom in Nigerian Democratic Dispensations(Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2010) Akinwale, A.AThe Nigerian socio-political environment influences press freedom with adverse implications for education, information, entertainment and surveillance. A theoretical recognition of the press as the “fourth estate” connotes the capacity of the press to monitor the tiers of government (the legislature, the executive and the judiciary). However, the state monitors the press in Nigeria in a manner that negates the principle of the fourth estate. This article examines the repression of press freedom in Nigerian democratic dispensations. Using questionnaires and in-depth interviews, data were drawn from 440 members of staff of selected print and electronic press organisations in Lagos and Oyo states of Nigeria. Results showed that although the press facilitated the development of democracy, challenges to press freedom were frequent. Respondents largely confirmed that the press kept the public informed, entertained and enlightened, and it set standards and established values for public conduct. The findings showed that the proposed Freedom of Information Bill (FIB) would empower the press and promote democracy in Nigeria if passed into law and implemented. Therefore, it was recommended that press organisations should pursue their professionalism and the ethics of journalism rather than succumb to sociopolitical forces influencing the quantity and quality of information made available to the public. Political leaders in Nigeria should accommodate public opinion and press reports on necessities for socio-economic development before making any public interest decision.
- ItemOpen AccessStrengthening social dialogue in the utilities sector in Nigeria.(2010) Fajana, S.Water and electricity are necessities of everyday life. The lack of access to clean, fresh drinking water increases malnutrition and disease, reduces economic growth, and promotes social instability and conflict, especially in the world’s poorer regions. Nigeria is a prominent example in sub-Saharan Africa where seriously inadequate water, sanitation and electricity delivery have increasingly impoverished its people and economy. The government has attempted to meet the targets set for it by the Millennium Development Goals; at current rates of progress Nigeria is likely to meet its target on access to water supply but not on sanitation. The Sectoral Activities Department of the ILO commissioned this report as part of its Action Programme on Strengthening Social Dialogue in the Utilities Sector, to examine the current state of the utilities sectors in Nigeria with special focus on water, sanitation and electricity; the challenges to be addressed; and the state of social dialogue in relation to reform measures. The report was validated in a workshop held in Abuja on 15–16 September 2009, with broad representation from the Government and the social partners. Although social dialogue in Nigeria’s water and electricity sectors has historically been weak, this report demonstrates with illustrative case studies that reform measures show some promise in the effort to strengthen it. This report also examines the effects of these reforms on employment and working conditions, and assesses the quality of dialogue among the relevant Nigerian industrial relations stakeholders. The report suggests steps that the Nigerian Government may take to address problems facing the utilities in Nigeria. The report aims to encourage dialogue among stakeholders on the issues raised. The ILO’s Action Programme aims to build on these findings and encourage the creation of permanent mechanisms of social dialogue in the utilities sector in Nigeria. The Programme also sponsors research and activities in Malawi and Peru. ILO working papers, such as this one, are a vehicle for disseminating information on topics related to the world of work and to social and labour policies and practices
- ItemOpen AccessAmnesty and human capital development agenda for the Niger Delta(2010) Akinwale, A.AThe Niger Delta of Nigeria has become increasingly famous due to massive oil deposits and escalation of violence in the region. The emergence of deadly militant groups embodied oil pipeline vandalisation, hostage taking, massacre, and assassination. Unfortunately, the Nigerian government’s top-down measures for alleviating the spate of violence in the region have not yielded desired results. This paper examines amnesty and human capital development agenda, using content analysis of relevant secondary data, with insights from the Habermasian Social Movement Theory and the Althusserian State Apparatus Theory. The paltry financial rewards granted to ex-militants are incomparable with huge amount of money they realised illegally. Thus, a resurgence of violence may occur in the region except the undesirable socio-economic situations that fuelled militancy are addressed. While amnesty is a good step towards peace building in the region, a holistic approach to human capital development must be taken to compliment it. Fundamentally, ex-militants’ endorsement of the amnesty without proven records of improvement in the Niger Delta situation is inappropriate. Also, the Nigerian government’s adoption of amnesty without ensuring accelerated empowerment within oil-endowed communities negates popular demands in the region. The amnesty programme should therefore be complemented by other innovative measures such as wide consultation with various stakeholders and inclusion of all youths in the training programmes that will cater for essential needs of the majority in the region.
- ItemOpen AccessIntegrating the Traditional and the Modern Conflict Management Strategies in Nigeria(2010) Akinwale, A.AThe study examines the modalities for integrating traditional and modern conflict management strategies in Nigeria using an analysis of relevant documents as well as Black’s Social Control Theory and Thomas-Kilmann’s Model of Conflict Management. The successful amalgamation of diverse groups has radically shifted from being a platform for peaceful coexistence to an arena of violent conflicts due to the matrix of social inequality and the state attempts to undermine the power of traditional social control systems. The police and military have been used to suspend several violent conflicts in Nigeria, but they have been unable to build peace despite their coercive power. The social structure and deep-seated grievances that generate violence have not been addressed and the crowding out of traditional methods of social control from official policies has left room for escalation of violent conflicts. The most disturbing of these conflicts are ethno-religious and resource-control conflicts, which have both resulted in monumental destruction of peoples and properties and exposed different parts of Nigeria to crisis. It is argued that a policy-driven synergy of useful traditional and modern strategies for conflict management will result in lasting peace in Nigeria.
- ItemOpen AccessSexuality and Dating Experience Among Youths in Ibadan,Nigeria(Ebonyi University Press Abakaliki, 2010) Adewale, A.AThe scope of sexual behaviour has extended beyond reproduction in Nigeria. This situation promotes pre-marital sex and youths’ susceptibility to sexuality-based social problems. Yet despite its importance, there is paucity of data on sexuality education in Nigeria. This paper examines sexuality and dating experience among youths in Ibadan, Nigeria, using a structured questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The discourse was situated within the ambit of Weber’s Social Action Theory. A three-stage stratified random sampling technique was used to select 400 respondents from the study area. The findings revealed a general misconception of sexuality among the respondents. Almost all the interviewees equated sexuality with romance and sexual intercourse. Issues described as sexuality by 83.2% of the respondents revolved around intimacy, while 16.8% expressed sexuality in terms of friendship. The majority of the respondents (87.8%) reported their knowledge of dating with marked variations in the frequency of its occurrence, ranging from weekly (33.5%) to occasionally (28.5%). Different factors identified as motivation for dating include: character (40.6%), religion (33.0%), love (14.5%), attraction (9.1%) and other factors (2.8%). Dating experience was however tainted by several crises such as deception, promiscuity, materialism and suspicion. A comprehensive sexuality education should therefore be promoted in Nigeria.