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- ItemOpen AccessAfrica and the World : Globalizing Inequality(1900) Jegede, S.BGlobalization and Globalism, its Philosophy, seem attractive on the surface, especially when one considers that Man, by nature, is a gregarious animal. The increasing connectivity, interdependence, universal cooperation and expansion of world trade which Globalization theoretically preaches, can hardly be ignored. However, connectivity, cooperation and interdependence of the states and peoples of the world cannot be successful where there is a glaring inequality of status. In a world divided into developed and underdeveloped countries, we wonder what is being globalized. In view of the above, this paper argues the position that African countries need to pay attention to developmental issues before any attempt at globalization. Globalization is a world of competition and no one goes into a competition without having the requisite skills or products. Globalizing at this stage of underdevelopment puts African States at a disadvantage, except the developed world decides to trade its development for underdevelopment.
- ItemOpen AccessAfrican Environmental Ethic: A Creation of Distorted Values(2008-08-08) Agboro, O.P
- ItemOpen AccessAn Appraisal of Al-Razi's Rationality and his Doctrine of the Five Essesnces(Department of History, Kaduna State University, 2019) Owosho, S.A.Against the background of Al-Razi's rationalist epistemology as demonstrated in his exaltation and highest admiration of reason over revelation, this paper critically examines Al-Razi's attempt at reconciling rationalistic theology with philosophy by incorporating concepts taken from Aristotle and other Greek philosophers with the Quran. The metaphysical doctrine of Al-Razi, insofar as it can be reconstructed, derives from his concept of the five eternal principles. God, for him, does not 'create' the world from nothing but rather arranges a universe out of pre-existing principles. His account of the soul features a mythic origin of the world in which God out of pity fashions a physical playground for the soul in response to its own desires; the soul, once fallen into the new realm God has made for it, requires God's further gift of intellect in order to find its way once more to salvation and freedom. In this scheme, intellect does not appear as a separate principle but is rather a later grace of God to the soul; the soul becomes intelligent, possessed of reason and therefore able to discern the relative value of the other four principles. Whereas the five principles are eternal, intellect as such is apparently not. Such a doctrine of intellect is sharply at odds with that of all of Razi's philosophical contemporaries, who are in general either adherents of some form of Neoplatonism or of Aristotelianism. The remaining three principles, space, matter and time, serve as the non-animate components of the natural world
- ItemOpen AccessAn Appraisal of Existentialist Notion of Freedom: A Recipe for Authentic Nation Building(Department of Public Law, Ambrose Alli University, 2016) Owosho, S.A.The nature of human freedom has long been a subject of controversy. This problem does not only concern man’s liberty from political and economic constraints but also his freedom in nature; his fundamental capacity for free choice and actions. This paper examines the nature of freedom in relation to nation building by identifying lack of freedom as a fundamental obstacle militating against nation building. It also appraises the problems of human freedom and nation building from the existentialist standpoint. The central theme of existentialism is that truth must start from subjectivity; that existence precedes essence; that reality is in action; that life is absurd and meaningless, and that only by acting can man put meaning into his existence. By this endeavour, this paper attempts to show the relevance of philosophy to human and national development. This paper maintains that the drive towards development is anchored on the will to be free. Freedom is the basic right of every individual, the freedom to act, to shape and develop the present and the path leading to the future of the nation. Development in this sense is the ability to liberate people from the hazardous power and influence of natural, geo-physical, socio-historical and world environment. This ability is a thing that must not be denied and cannot be borrowed. It has to evolve naturally, encouraged, nurtured and strengthened. It concludes that African nations must strive to be free and be self-determined as this is the way to originality and authentic nation building
- ItemOpen AccessAn Appraisal of the Humean Foundation of Husserlian Phenomenology(Department of Philosophy, University of Lagos, 2019) Owosho, S.A.One of the Fundamental goals of philosophy is to provide the best possible answers to human concerns in his quest for the highest values and to develop the unique broad-range capacities of human reason. Since the history of Western philosophy represented a series of abortive attempts to achieve this feat, Husserl was convinced that philosophy could achieve this goal if it adopts the method of Phenomenology. Husserl’s phenomenology grew out of the conscious attempt to avoid the logical absurdities that plagued Hume’s epistemology. It is against this background that this paper proposes to examine in details the affinity between Hume’s empiricism and Husserl’s phenomenology. It seeks not to assess the validity of Hume’s empiricism but rather to substantiate the conviction that, Husserl, in his pursuit of the project of transcendental phenomenology, followed Hume’s lead down into the depths of the concrete ego to find the ultimate origins of all objectivities and “worlds”. Husserl’s recognition of Descartes as discoverer of the transcendental sphere went side by side with a radical interpretation of Hume as the first practitioner of genuine transcendental philosophy. Hume’s philosophy is held to be a preparatory and cleansing stage through which philosophical thought must pass to come to its maturity and to arrive at transcendental phenomenology. Husserl disclosed that an essential task of his phenomenology is to grapple with the problem discovered by Hume, namely the “Humean Problem”.
- ItemOpen AccessArt and the Question of Moral Values: A Moderatist Perspective(Department of Philosophy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, 2013) Owosho, S.A.A major theme of discussion within the recent philosophical aesthetics is concerned with the relation between the moral aspect in the works of art and their overall artistic value. Ethicists believe that much contemporary art seems morally out of control, yet philosophers seem to have trouble finding the right way to morally evaluate works of art. It is against this background that this paper proposes a philosophical inquiry into the relations between artistic values and moral values. This paper identifies two opposing philosophical positions with respect to the legitimacy of the moral evaluation of art: Moralism and Autonomism. While moralism is the view that the aesthetic value of art should be determined by its moral value, autonomism holds that it is inappropriate to apply moral categories to art; rather they should be evaluated by aesthetic standard value. The paper rejects autonomism and moralism as extreme and untenable philosophical theories of art. It further examines moderate autonomism and moderate moralism as plausible theories. It argues for the adoption of moderate moralism as the appropriate philosophical theory for the moral evaluation of art
- ItemOpen AccessCartesian Foundation of Husserlian Phenomenology: A Critical Appraisal(Faculty of Arts, University of Lagos, 2015) Owosho, S.A.The inquiry into Husserl’s phenomenology develops out of the philosophical concern that includes the fundamental problems of ontology, epistemology and philosophic methodology. However, the larger motivations for the subject matter of Husserl’s phenomenology lie with matters of epistemology and methodology. This could be traced through the philosophies of Descartes, Hume and Kant. Husserl shares the view of Descartes that the fundamental task of philosophy is that of providing the right epistemological method. It is against this background that this paper proposes an examination of Descartes epistemology as providing the ultimate foundation for Husserl’s phenomenology. It intends to show that there is a very strong affinity in the most basic core of Descartes and Husserl’s philosophies. It further posits that the ultimate interest of both philosophers is that of articulating a universal method that would guarantee the establishment of an absolute foundation of knowledge
- ItemOpen AccessConcensus in Philosophy and the dynamics of African Culture(2014-06) Osegenwune, CThe emergence of civil society fundamentally, is to ameliorate the human condition. No human being, no matter how wealthy is self-sufficient. The provision of the basic necessities of life by human beings provided a platform for interaction and to move society forward. In this process of interaction, self and group interests surfaced resulting in disagreement, conflict and sometimes violence. To move society forward, and to ensure peace and stability, various methods have been adopted at one time or the other to resolve these problems for the progress of man and society. One of these methods is consensus, which is an agreement by a group of people to adopt a common position in resolving conflict of a controversial nature. In principle, consensus, appears democratic but in practice, it becomes an ideological weapon of achieving a temporal harmony. The application of consensus in human decision making process in Africa is increasing day by day especially in political decisions. These decisions affect the generality of the population without a corresponding positive result. Illusion and delusion stare us on the face while 'a few at the corridors of power smile home with unquantifiable benefits. What are the prospects of adopting consensus in African socio-political environment? This paper examines the problem of consensus in decision making through the prism of philosophy in the face of the dynamics of African culture.
- ItemOpen AccessA Critical Analysis of Edmund Husserl's Method of Reductions(Department of Philosophy, Ahmadu Bello University, 2019) Owosho, S.A.This paper attempts a critical analysis of the method of reductions in Husserl's phenomenological project. The goal of Husserl’s phenomenology is that of trying to establish a secured foundation for philosophical and scientific knowledge. He invented a method in order to achieve his goal. This method is called the phenomenological method which enabled him to distinguished two important phenomenological standpoints namely natural attitude and phenomenological attitude respectively. The cardinal problem tackled by this paper is that of overcoming the natural attitude. The natural attitude is, attitude of everyday life characterised by an uncritical acceptance of the existence of the world independently of our attention. In order to transcend the natural attitude therefore, the philosopher must embrace the phenomenological attitude starting with the epoche, which eventually lead Husserl to the next stage of the phenomenological method, which is the method of reductions. The basic findings of this paper is that the reductions reduces the natural attitude and what is experienced in it to the sphere in which consciousness manifest itself
- ItemOpen AccessAn Examination of Immanuel Kant’s Notion of Transcendence(Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Arts, Olabisi Onabanjo University, 2012) Owosho, S.A.This paper critically examines Immanuel Kant’s notion of transcendence. It explores his meta-epistemic synthesis of rationalist and empiricist theories of cognition. It essentially investigates the transcendental powers of the human mind. It locates the power of the mind to regenerate and transform the world in transcendence. Kant’s theory of transcendence demonstrates the metaphysical powers of the mind to move and go beyond something into the desert region of nothingness. The paper however, reveals Kant’s reduction of metaphysics to anthropology as one of the errors of his theory. It further identifies Kant’s justification of racism as a fundamental pitfall of his theory of transcendence
- ItemOpen AccessLanguage as a Viable Mechanism for Evolving Authentic African Identity: A Philosophical Examination(Kenya Scholars and Studies Association, 2013) Owosho, S.A.The call for evolution of an authentic African identity can be described to mean the call for the development of a new modern African civilization with its own values and its own validity. This crusade suggests in the opinion of scholars of African philosophy either that Africans once had identity but lost it or later denied, or that the Africans never had one. Granted that Africans do have identity, contemporary realities suggest a glaring crisis of identity for Africans, most especially, for the Africans in the Diasporas. This paper traces the origin of the problem and the search for an authentic African identity from the advent of slavery and slave trade perpetrated by the European colonialists, and their attempts to wipe out the identity of Africans. Realising the potency of language, this paper explores language as an effective springboard for the development of the re-emergent African civilization. Language serves as the tool and the primary medium of expression as it plays an important role in the way people know and understand. It further advocates the development of native African languages a conditio sine qua non for re-establishing a genuine African identity. It makes a clarion call on the government of African nations to propagate the values and heritages of indigenous African languages. It concludes that the foundation for the survival of Africans as a people lies in the reconstruction of Africa’s cultural identity
- ItemOpen AccessLeadership Question in Nigeria: A Philosophical Appraisal(University of Cape Coast Press, 2016) Owosho, S.A.The deficiency in governance and the socio economic imbalance that have ravaged the Nigerian political landscape since independence suggest to a large extent a vivid manifestation of leadership failure. It is against this backdrop that this paper proposes to make a philosophical examination of the question of leadership in the Nigerian state .In the philosophical parlance, a leader for Plato is one who has attained the highest level of knowledge and statesmanship. Plato advocates that competence should be the qualification for authority. This paper makes the statement that Nigeria will witness a progressive monumental transformation if philosophical acumen is made the minimum requirement for the appointment or election of leaders
- ItemOpen AccessMuyiwa Falaiye’s Philosophy of Cultural Adaptationism: An Introductory Appraisal(University of Lagos Press, 2012) Owosho, S.A.The failure of Africa to lead any meaningful social and political development has ignited the intellectual curiosity of many African socio political thinkers. This failure is more manifest in the areas of scientific and technological developments. So far, divergent reasons have been adduced as possible causes. While a section of thinkers known as the Externalists trace the problem to external factors particularly the European colonisation of Africa, another by the name Internalists, blame the failure of the African states on internal factors with particular emphasis on African leaders. Against the background of this argument, this paper proposes the adoption of Muyiwa Falaiye’s Philosophy of cultural Adaptationism as the socio political philosophy viable for fashioning out the much desired change. It argues that the surest and fastest way to bring about genuine development in Africa is through education and cultural adaptation.
- ItemOpen AccessOf Human-Environment Relationship: A Critique(Department of Philosophy, University of Uyo, 2016) Owosho, S.A.The study of the relationship between man and his environment has always attracted attention. The relationship of man and the environment has also influenced the environment of human society. The conscious and unconscious misuse of nature by man has led to the persistent degradation of the world physical environment. The one time cordial man-environmental relationship has been marred due to increase in human greed, self-centredness, egoism and his never ending desires. The defilement of the friendly man-environment relationship commenced when man conceived himself as a being superior to nature, and embarked on the project of the conquest of nature. With the onset of the concept of the conquest of nature that occupied the human mind, the balance of the ecosystem and therefore the environment was shaken, which ultimately led to environment degradation and degradation of environment quality. It is against this human attitude of Darwinian survival of the fittest that this paper proposes to make a critique of man-environment relationship from the perspective of environmental ethics. It makes a critical analysis of the major causes of environmental degradation and its disastrous consequences, which has transformed the world environment into a suicidal living ecosystem. This paper suggests the effective implementation of a philosophy of environmental education which will educate man to acquire a clear understanding that there is an inseparable link between man and the environment. Environmental degradation has reached its peak and obviously there is a need of a philosophy of life based on symbiosis, that is, cordiality between man and the environment
- ItemOpen AccessPan-Africanism and the Threat of Terrorism: A Critical Appraisal(Department of African and Asian Studies, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,, 2020) Owosho, S.A.The crusade for a formidable Pan-Africanism has been an age long project in the annals of the struggle for African emancipation. However the project has witnessed more rhetoric than action. The African continent has been severely plagued by political and economic instability and endemic poverty. The level of corruption and insecurity in the continent is so worrisome that even Africans in the diaspora have been discouraged from making meaningful contribution to the development projects in the continent. The most recent is the menace of terrorism. Terrorism continues to be one of the most serious threats to peace and security in Africa. The continent has and continues to pay a heavy toll for these outrageous and criminal acts, which have resulted in mass casualties, destruction of infrastructure, loss of livelihood and displacements. These among other problems are some of the fundamental obstacles militating against the realization of the desired goal of the project. It is against this background that this paper makes a philosophical appraisal of Pan-Africanism in the new millennium. This paper aims at tackling these challenges and re-awakening Africans, particularly, African leaders on the fundamental objectives of Pan-Africanism. It recognizes terrorism as a global threat, requiring commitment at all levels. It emphasizes the critical importance of cooperation and collaboration with the international partners in other to defeat terrorism. It further suggests leadership training with emphasis on moral education for African leaders. It posits that, only in a community of people with moral rectitude and unflinching collective will can Pan-Africanism attain greater heights that would guarantee enduring socio-economic security and political stability in Africa.
- ItemOpen AccessTransmitting African Cultural Values through Storytelling: A Phenomenological Explication of Children Education for National Development(2020-09) Owosho, S.A.The import of storytelling as a transmitter of cultural and moral values has been greatly undermined by the influx of uncensored and uncritical acceptance of foreign cultures and lifestyles amongst African children. The result is that African stories are not being told, if they are told, they are relayed as illustrations of western stereotypes about Africa. It is against this backdrop that this paper takes a critical look at the import of storytelling as a teaching method in the transmission of African cultural and moral values in African primary and secondary schools, in order to promote national development. It situates this discourse within the context of the African cultural, moral, and educational value system. The paper adopts the phenomenological method to critically explore the phenomenon of storytelling as a teaching method. It also recommends that storytelling as a teaching method be included into the primary and secondary school syllabus in Africa in order to develop meaningful national development.
- ItemOpen AccessWiredu's Consensual Democracy and the Limits of an African Political Consensus: A Critical Evaluation(Department of Philosophy, University of Uyo, 2021) Owosho, S.A.This paper takes a critical look at Kwasi Wiredu’s Consensual Democracy and the attempt at universalising it at least across the African continent. Against the background of the economic and socio political instability that have bedeviled the African states as a result of the practise of majoritarian democracy, Wiredu proposes a form of democracy that is deeply rooted in African traditional culture in the name of consensual democracy as a viable alternative to the Western majoritarian democracy. In this paper, I argue that given the cultural diversity and multifarious nature of the contemporary African society, the proposal for universalizing Consensual Democracy may be a mere academic exercise, whose implementation lacks practicability.