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- ItemOpen AccessAccumulation, tolerance and impact of aluminium, copper and zinc on growth and nitrate reductase activity of Ceratophyllum demersum (Hornwort)(Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India), 2008) Umebese, C. E.; Motajo, A. F.Ceratophyllum demersum (hornwort) was subjected to toxic concentrations of Al (3 and 9 mg l -1), Zn (3 and 9 mg l -1) and Cu (2.5 and 7 mg l -1) in culture solutions for 15 days. The higher dose of Al enhanced the chlorophyll content significantly (p<0.05) in the first 6 days of treatment while other treatments caused marked reductions. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) was significantly reduced (p<0.05) by Al, Cu and Zn toxicity and ceased completely in plants treated with Cu by the 6th day of treatment. Dry biomass and relative growth rate were reduced significantly (p<0.05) by metal treatment. Tolerance index of the plant was low for Cu (21.62 and 13.43% at low and high doses, respectively) and moderate for Zn (63.74 and 54.85%) and Al (72.83 and 68.79%). Accumulation of Al, Zn and Cu was threefold at higher doses compared with the lower doses but the bioconcentration factors (BCF) were very low indicating that this plant is not a hyper accumulator of these metals.
- ItemOpen AccessActivity activity of the crude extracts of Alafia bateri Oliver (Apocynaceae) and Chasmanthera dependens Hochst. (Menispermaceae)(National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, 2004) Adekunle, A.A.; Okoli, S. O.Texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessAcute and Sub-acute Toxicity Profile of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Nymphaea lotus Linn (Nymphaeaceae) in Wistar Rats(Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 2015) Sharaibi, O. J.; Ogundipe, O.T.; Magbagbeola, O. A.; Kazeem, M. I.; Afolayan, A. J.Purpose: To evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity profile of the aqueous leaf extract of Nymphaea lotus L in Wistar rats. Methods: Acute toxicity study was performed by administering a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight of the extract to 5 rats while distilled water was given to another 5 rats (control), and the animals were observed for 14 days. Thereafter, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of the extract were administered to different groups of 5 rats each daily for 28 days while control received distilled water. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and the serum obtained was used for the assessment of haematological and biochemical parameters. Histological examination was also performed on the liver and kidney of the rats. Results: The concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (42.56 U/L), aspartate aminotransferase (126.01 U/L) and alkaline phosphatase (183.33 U/L) significantly decreased while creatinine (0.64mg/dL) and chloride ions (94.50 mmol/L) were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) compared to those of control following the extract treatment. Haematological parameters were not significantly different (p >0.05) from those of control except white blood cell count (7.80 × 109/L), lymphocytes (5.20 %) and monocytes (2.72 %) which were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in the 100 and 200 mg/kg treated groups. Histopathology did not reveal any sign of lesions or pathological changes in the organs that could be attributed to treatment with the plant extract. Conclusions: These results suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of Nymphaea lotus may be safe for use at the doses tested.
- ItemOpen AccessAeropalynological Studies of the University of Lagos Campus, Nigeria(Horticulture and Forestry Society from Transylvania, 2010) Adekanmbi, O. H.; Ogundipe, O.T.Aeropalynological studies were conducted in four selected sites at the University of Lagos campus, in the months of February, March, April and May of 2007. One pollen-collecting bucket containing 50 ml glycerol, 10 ml formaldehyde and 5 ml phenol, per site, was placed at each sampling site, namely the Botanical Garden, Lagoon Front, Engineering Department and Computer Center. The mixtures which attracted aerospore from the atmosphere were acetolysed, observed under the microscope and photomicrographs of palynomorphs were taken. The abundance of recovered pollen ranges from 64, in February to 132, in May. Recovered palynological assemblage from chemical engineering sampling point had the highest in February, Lagoon Front location had the highest in March, Computer Centre location had the highest in April and Lagoon Front had highest number of palynomorphs during May. A total of 393 palynomorphs were counted at all, belonging to 22 families. Poaceae were abundant representing 26.33% of the total pollen, Asteraceae represents 12.72%, Mimosaceae (8.89%), Ferns spores (8.64%), Arecaceae (5.85%) and Euphorbiacae (5.34%) among others. The palynomorphs abundance and diversity hits the peak in May which corresponds to the wettest month of the sampled period.
- ItemOpen AccessAEROPALYNOLOGY OF AYETORO–ITELE, OTA SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA: A PRELIMINARY STUDY(Palynological Association of Nigeria (PAN) and University of Ibadan press, 2016) Adeonipekun, A. P.; Agbalaya, A. E.; Adeniyi, T.A twelve-month aeropalynofloral survey at Ayetoro-Itele Ota southwest Nigeria documents the palynomorphs and diatoms in the atmosphere of the area. Pollen of Poaceae, Alchornea cordifolia, Elaeis guineensis, Typha spp., Cleome spp., Ocimum gratissimum, Aracaceae (Palmae), Cheno-Ams and Combret/Melastomaceae dominate the flora. Dominant pteridophyte spores include Dryopteris sp. Acrostichum aureum, Polypodium, Nephrolepis, cf. Cyclosus afer and Pteris spp. Aulacoseira spp., Diatoma and Synedra constitute the diatom assemblage. The abundance and diversity of these aerofloral assemblages were related to meteorological parameters. A total of 102 pollen and spores species (46 families) were recognized. Pollen dominates over spores with Poaceae exhibiting dominance over other sporomorphs. Aeroflora are more abundant with higher diversity during the dry months. Bisaccate pollen appeared first feebly in June but became appreciable in windy August and September. This work recorded bisaccate pollen for the first time in aeropalynology in Nigeria. Four aeropalynological seasons were recognized within the twelve months study. Charred Poaceae cuticles, diatoms and fungal elements are more abundant in dry months due to high wind speed and low rainfall. Poaceae, Alchornea, Celosia, Dryopteris and charred Poaceae cuticles and fungal elements are candidate allergens in the study area. April, July and October are allergy “safe” months due to lowest aerofloral records.
- ItemOpen AccessAFLATOXINS ASSOCIATED WITH STORAGE FUNGI IN FISH FEED(Ife Journal of Science, 2015-07) Samuel, Temitope; Odunigba, OlusegunCereals and legumes are a very important part of feed used in culturing fishes. Feed, when not properly stored, enhances the growth of storage fungi which is a source of mycotoxins, secondary metabolites produced by storage fungi. This study investigates storage fungi and aflatoxin in fish feed stored under three different storage conditions. Storage fungi were isolated and identified using direct isolation technique; detection and identification of aflatoxins using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Proximate analysis of the stored feed were also carried out. Two fungi species (Mucor species and Fusarium oxysporium) were isolated from the stored feed. It was observed that it takes five weeks after sporulation of storage fungi for production of mycotoxins to take place. Four types of Aflatoxins (G1, G2, B1 & B2) were identified in the stored feed. The results on the proximate analysis on the stored feed prior to and after storage periods revealed decrease in the carbohydrate, protein, ash and the crude fiber content of the stored feed and increase in the moisture and crude fat content of the feed. The results from this study revealed that good storage condition is very essential and there is need for further work to assess the implication of aflatoxin on the health of fish and human (final consumer).
- ItemOpen AccessAirborne fungi from some eating places on the University of Lagos, Akoka Campus, Nigeria(Kloblex Academic Publishers, 2001) Adekunle, A.A.Texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessAirborne fungi spores distribution in various locations in Lagos, Nigeria(Environ Monit Assess, 2020) Odebode, A.; Odebode, A.; Adekunle, A.A.; Adeonipekun, P.Exposure to outside air microorganisms es- pecially fungi has been linked with illness such as allergic respiratory symptoms, rhinitis, asthma, and in- fection such as mycosis. Airborne fungal composition was sampled from five locations in Lagos State, Nigeria, between May 2014 and April 2016. Fungi spores were collected using the sedimentation plate method with the Petri dishes of dichloran-glycerol 18 (DG-18) and pota- to dextrose agar (PDA) media. Fungi sporulated faster on DG-18 agar plate as compared with PDA. The abun- dances of fungal spores collected monthly at the locations varied. The most abundant spores came from the fungi were Aspergillus niger (14.47%), Aspergillus sydowii (10.37%), and Aspergillus flavus (7.93%). Ad- ditional species were present in the collections including Ascomycetes: Penicillium funiculosum (5.49%), Neurospora crassa (5.32%), Penicillium oxalicum (4.71%), Penicillium pinophilum (2.88%), Fusarium verticillioides (3.05%), Penicillium simplicissimum (1.83%), Aphaderanum sp. (0.22%), Curvularia sp. (0.22%), Aspergillus oryzae (0.22%), and Paecilomyces sp. (0.61%) and the Mucoromycotina Zygomycetes: Rhizopus oryzae (4.10%) and Mucor sp. (3.44%). Fungal concentrations were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) during the rainy season compared with the dry season. Aspergillus and Penicillium were the most predominant airborne fungal genera while Mucor, Alternaria, and Cladosporium were some of the least observed. Generally, abundance of fungi was significantly high during the wet season in all the studied locations.
- ItemOpen AccessAirborne fungi spores distribution in various locations in Lagos, Nigeria(2020) Odebode, A.; Adekunle, A.A.; Stajich,J.; Adeonipekun, P.Exposure to outside air microorganisms especially fungi has been linked with illness such as allergic respiratory symptoms, rhinitis, asthma, and infection such as mycosis. Airborne fungal composition was sampled from five locations in Lagos State, Nigeria, between May 2014 and April 2016. Fungi spores were collected using the sedimentation plate method with the Petri dishes of dichloran-glycerol 18 (DG-18) and pota- to dextrose agar (PDA) media. Fungi sporulated faster on DG-18 agar plate as compared with PDA. The abun- dances of fungal spores collected monthly at the loca- tions varied. The most abundant spores came from the fungi were Aspergillus niger (14.47%), Aspergillus sydowii (10.37%), and Aspergillus flavus (7.93%). Additional species were present in the collections including Ascomycetes: Penicillium funiculosum (5.49%), Neu- rospora crassa (5.32%), Penicillium oxalicum (4.71%), Penicillium pinophilum (2.88%), Fusarium verticillioides (3.05%), Penicillium simplicissimum (1.83%), Aphaderanum sp. (0.22%), Curvularia sp. (0.22%), Aspergillus oryzae (0.22%), and Paecilomyces sp. (0.61%) and the Mucoromycotina Zygomycetes: Rhizopus oryzae (4.10%) and Mucor sp. (3.44%). Fungal concentrations were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) during the rainy season compared with the dry season. Aspergillus and Penicillium were the most predominant airborne fungal genera while Mucor, Alternaria, and Cladosporium were some of the least observed. Generally, abundance of fungi was significantly high duringthe wet season in all the studied locations.
- ItemOpen AccessAirborne pollen and fungal spores in Garki, Abuja (North-Central Nigeria)(Springer Nature Switzerland, 2016) Ezike, D. N.; Nnamani, C. V.; Ogundipe, O.T.; Adekanmbi, O. H.The ambient atmosphere is dominated with pollen and spores, which trigger allergic reactions and diseases and impact negatively on human health. A survey of pollen and fungal spores constituents of the atmosphere of Garki, Abuja (North-Central Nigeria) was carried out for 1 year (June 1, 2011–May 31, 2012). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and abundance of pollen and fungal spores in the atmosphere and their relationship with meteorological parameters. Airborne samples were trapped using modified Tauber-like pollen trap, and the recipient solutions were subjected to acetolysis. Results revealed the abundance of fungal spores, pollen, fern spores, algal cysts and diatoms in decreasing order of dominance. The atmosphere was qualitatively and quantitatively dominated by pollen during the period of late rainy/harmattan season than the rainy season. Numerous fungal spores were trapped throughout the sampling periods among which Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., Cladosporium spp. and Curvularia spp. dominated. These fungi have been implicated in allergic diseases and are dermatophytic, causing diverse skin diseases. Other pathogenic fungi found in the studied aeroflora were Dreschlera spp., Helminthosporium spp., Torula spp., Pithomyces spp., Tetraploa spp., Nigrospora ssp., Spadicoides spp., Puccinia spp. and Erysiphe graminis. Total pollen and fungal spores counts do not show significant correlation with meteorological parameters.
- ItemOpen AccessAirborne Pollen Records of Shomolu Local Government Area in Lagos State(Horticulture and Forestry Society from Transylvania, 2014) Adeniyi, T. A.; Adeonipekun, P. A.; Olowokudejo, J. D.; Akande, I. S.Data on the prevalence of pollen in the atmosphere is limited and almost non-existent for Lagos State and Nigeria. Pollen grains are known to be highly allergenic and thus they are potential causes of respiratory diseases. To investigate airborne incidence of pollen, so as to construct a pollen calendar and contribute to current trends in the development of aeropalynology/allergy study in Nigeria, three highly populated locations in Shomolu Local Government areas of Lagos State: University of Lagos, Bariga and Gbagada, were sampled. Aero-samplers were harvested monthly from January 2013 to December 2013. After acetolysis treatment and analysis, the total pollen count was 4393, belonging to 38 pollen taxa and 29 families. The main taxa include Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Amaranthaceae, Ludwigia and Alchornea. Monthly pollen counts were highest in October and lowest in June. Almost three-quarters of the total pollen content came from grasses and weeds. This composition reflects the ornamental and grassland flora of the town, as well as the natural vegetation surrounding the urban area. The total pollen concentration correlates positively with the temperature and negatively with the wind, rainfall and relative humidity, which was similar in the dominant taxa Amaranthaceae and Alchornea. Dominant taxa Cyperaceae and Ludwigia have significant positive correlation with wheezing cough. Results from this work will form the basis for a forecast service required to inform and educate the general public and allergy sufferers about pollen distribution in Lagos State.
- ItemOpen AccessAllergenicity of dominant aeropollen in Nigeria (Part II)(Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), 2018) Adeniyi, T. A.; Adeonipekun, P. A.; Olowokudejo, J. D.; Akande, I.Until the publication of the Part I of this research series, the purification and characterisation of allergenic components in pollen grains did not exist in Nigeria. To close this gap, Part II is presented here. Four pollen grains – Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach et Thonn) Mull Arg (Christmas bush), Amaranthus hybridus L (African spinach ‘green’), Casuarina equisetifolia L (whistling pine) and Terminalia catappa L (Indian almond tree) – found dominant in the air from previous aeropalynological studies in Nigeria were selected. Pollen grains were collected from anthers (through crushing and sieving) and their proteins were extracted and quantified (using standard methods), separated (using SDS-PAGE) and subjected to an allergenicity test (using Western-blot). After this, the allergenic proteins were identified and their peptide sequences were deposited in the proteomics database. A hybridus had the highest protein content (19.15 mg/mL), whereas C equisetifolia had the lowest (7.48 mg/mL). However, hypersensitive individuals were most susceptible (84%) to the 58 kDa protein in A cordifolia. Each of the pollens studied had one dominant allergenic protein. These protein bands were newly registered in the database, since there were no previous entries. Profilin (14 kDa) was the group to which two of the protein bands belong (T catappa and A hybridus) – an indication of the broad-spectrum immunotherapeutic potential of Profilin. Part II is the first study in Nigeria to report allergenic proteins in these pollen grains, and it is hoped that the results will spur further research in allergenic proteins to aid allergy diagnosis and treatment in Nigeria.
- ItemOpen AccessAllergenicity of dominant aeropollen in Nigeria: Part I(Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), 2017) Adeniyi, T. A.; Adeonipekun, P. A.; Olowokudejo, J. D.Several pollen grains have been studied in detail for purification and characterisation of allergenic components in the advanced countries; however, many are yet to be studied in the tropics, including Nigeria. To close this gap, four pollen grains (Poaceae – Cynodon dactylon, Panicum maximum; Cyperaceae – Cyperus rotundus and Mariscus alternifolius) found dominant in the air from previous aeropalynology studies in Nigeria were selected for allergenicity studies. The pollen grains were harvested from fresh anthers and their proteins were extracted, quantified, separated, subjected to Western-blot analysis, and allergenic proteins were identified. C dactylon had the highest protein content (17.09 mg/mL), whereas M alternifolius had the lowest (11.19 mg/mL). Western-blot analysis showed that individuals were most susceptible to the 35 kDa protein of C dactylon (76%). Furthermore, only C dactylon proteins of 14.5 kDa and 35 kDa were identified with their exact matches in the ProFound database (Cyn d 12 and Cyn d 1 respectively), whereas the peptide sequences of eight protein bands were newly added to the database. Of these, the Profilin protein group (14 kDa) is common to all studied pollen grains – an indication of veritable immunotherapeutic potential. This study is the first in Nigeria to record allergenic proteins in these pollen grains and to create a foundation for the development of immunotherapy drugs for allergy treatment in the country.
- ItemOpen AccessAmeliorative impact of salicylic acid on growth of Abelmoschus esculentus var. Clemson spineless under aluminium toxicity.(Faculty of Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, 2015) Umebese, C. E.; Fabiyi, O. O.The objective of the present study was to protect the growth of Abelmoschus esculentus var. Clemson spineless (okro) using salicylic acid (SA) in soil subjected to aluminium (Al) toxicity and Al chelated with -1 ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Okro plants were grown in soil contaminated with Al (1.5g kg ) in the following combinations: Al, Al+SA, Al+EDTA, Al+SA+EDTA and a control (water). The growth parameters were studied over a period of ten weeks while the total sugar and total chlorophyll contents were determined at th the 10 week of growth. Al toxicity caused significant reductions (57-84%) in all growth parameters (plant height, fresh and dry shoot weight, fresh and dry root weight, leaf area, stem girth, fruit fresh and dry weight, fruit number) except the Net assimilation rate, Leaf area ratio and Relative growth rate. Treatment of stressed plants with SA improved the growth parameters by 17 - 165%, total soluble sugar by 140% and total chlorophyll by 22%. Plants subjected to chelated Al (EDTA + Al) exhibited much greater reductions in growth than those grown in Al only. Treatment of stressed plants with SA under chelated Al toxicity (Al + SA + EDTA) improved the Growth parameters by 18% - 150%, total sugar by 130% and total chlorophyll by 140% but the impact was less than that of non chelated Al (Al+SA). Al toxicity caused marked reductions in growth parameters, chlorophyll and sugar contents but chelating Al with EDTA resulted in much more decrease in these parameters. SA exhibited higher ameliorative capacity when plants were exposed to non chelated Al toxicity.
- ItemOpen AccessAncistroguineines A and B as well as Ancistrotectorine-naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids from Ancistrocladus guineensis(Elsevier Science, 1998) Bringmann, G.; Gonther, C.; Busemann, S.; Schaffer, M.; Olowokudejo, J. D.; Alo, B. I.The isolation of three naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids from the leaves of Ancistrocladus guinegnsis is described. Their complete structures were established by spectroscopic, chiroptical and degradative methods. Thus, two hitherto unknown 5,8'-coupled naphthylisoquinolines, named ancistroguineines A and B, were isolated, constituting the first example of a pair of 3-epimeric naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids. Moreover, ancistrotectorine, a 7,3'-coupled alkaloid previously known only from the South-East Asian species Ancistrocladus tectorius, was isolated. Its absolute stereostructure was confirmed by oxidative degradation and by comparison of experimental and calculated CD spectra.
- ItemOpen AccessAnnual Records of Airborne Pollen of Poaceae in Five Areas in Lagos, Nigeria(Taylor and Francis Group, 2018) Adeniyi, T. A.; Adeonipekun, P. A.; Olowokudejo, J. D.Poaceae pollen grains are known to be highly allergenic and they are potential causes of allergic respiratory diseases. In order to investigate the incidence of airborne Poaceae, and contribute to current trends in the development of aeropalynology/ allergy studies in Nigeria, five highly populated locations in Central Lagos State, Surulere, Ebute-Metta, University of Lagos, Bariga and Gbagada, were sampled. Gravimetric aerosamples were collected monthly from January 2013 to December 2014. The lowest count in 2013 was recorded in the Ebute-Metta area (179), while the highest in 2013 was recorded in Gbagada (564). In 2014, the Surulere area (282) had the lowest count while Bariga (671) had the highest. The locations have similar monthly pollen distribution pattern but different peak months. Generally, Poaceae pollen counts were lowest in the months of June and July. These are therefore the safest months for Poaceae pollen hypersensitive individuals in the study areas. Relative humidity was the most important meteorological parameter with significant correlations in Ebute-Metta and Bariga locations. Results from this work will form the basis for a forecast service required to inform and educate the general public and allergy sufferers about Poaceae pollen distribution in Lagos State.
- ItemOpen AccessAntifungal Activities of Ethanol and Aqueous Crude Extracts of Four Nigerian Chewing Sticks(2006-01-06) Adekunle, A.A; Odukoya, K.AThe antifungal activities of the ethanol and aqueous crude extracts of four Nigerian chewing sticks were investigated. Also a preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plants was done. The chewing sticks include Anogeissus schimperi, Distemonanthus benthmianus, Vernonia amagdalina and Xanthoxylum zanthoxyloides. All the plants tested, except Anogeissus Schimperi, displayed antifungal activities, zone of inhibition above the 10mm standard mark. The ethanol crude extracts of the chewing sticks had a greater zone of inhibition in comparison with the aqueous extract. Among the individual plant extracts, D. benthmianus had the highest antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus and Microsporium gypseum and Trichophyton metagrophytes. The chewing sticks contain antifungal agents, though the concentration and composition of the bioactive substances may differ amongst the plants. Distemonath benthmianus exhibited a better antifungal activity and thus made it more suitable for better dental care. Flavonoid was present in all the plant extracts.Tannin was present in all the plant extract, except that of Anogeissus schimperi. Alkaloids were absent in all the plant extract.The ethanolic extracts had more phytochemical compounds than the aqueous extracts.
- ItemOpen AccessAntifungal Activity of Ancistrophylum secundiflorum L. (Areceae)(National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 2001) Adekunle, A.A.Texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessAntifungal properties of the crude extract of Bauhinia thonningii Schum. (Caesalpiniaceae) and Sarcocephalus esculentus Afzel. (Rubiaceae) from a Tropical Forest in Nigeria(National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, 2005) Adekunle, A. A.; Lawal, A. K.; Keshinro, O. R.Texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessAntifungal property of the crude extract of Brachystegia eurycoma and Richardia brasiliensis(Nigerian Society of Pharmacognosy, 2000) Adekunle, A.A.Texts attached