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- ItemOpen AccessA Critical Study of Yoruba Written Poetry(University of Lagos, 1974) Olabimtan, Emanuel AfolabiThis work is an analytical exposition of Yoruba poetry written in the period 1848 - 1948. The thesis is in three parts. The first part is made up of Chapter one, two and three, deals with preliminaries. In the first Chapter, there is a discussion of those factors, outside Yoruba culture, which were contributory to the emergence and growth of Yoruba written poetry. The second Chapter gives an overview of the poetry under study, showing that it falls within three distinct periods and four main types with regard to aims and objectives. Chapter Three gives a biography of each of the poet concerned.
- ItemOpen AccessThe Obolo (Andoni) of the Eastern Niger Delta(University of Lagos, 1977-06) Nkparom, C. EjituwuThis work traces the Obolo from earliest beginnings to 1931 when they were effectively brought under the British Colonial administration. It shows that they may have been living in the Niger Delta for some 700 years. Here, they came in contact and entered into various historical relations with the Ijo, Ibibio, Ogoni and the Nkodi.
- ItemOpen AccessFirst Ten Years of Zambian Prose Fiction in English, 1964 to 1974/75(University of Lagos Postgraduate School, 1981) OKENIMKPE, N. MThe study examines the mode of emergence and pattern of growth of Zambian prose fiction in English in the decade from 1964-1975, and makes an attempt at identifying the thematic tendencies and analyzing the technical approaches of that body of writing. In the period, four full-length novels and several hundred short stories were published. It is upon this body of writing that primary attention is focused in the study. Each chapter takes up a separate aspect of the subject. Chapter One explains forms and standpoints. Chapter Two carries out a survey of the variegated background - historical, social, political and literary of current creative writing in Zambia: the distant indigenous past: the period of colonial rule and the ascendency of the white man: the period of Independence and the emergence of the new 'Humanist' political order: the folklore, and indigenous-language and early writings. It concludes that this background provides for Zambia as rich a background and, in some respects a richer one, for a vibrant literature as any of other African society has had. Chapter Three deals with the Story, which has remained to date the dominant form in which Zambian literature has been written. With a view to using the idea of degrees of overall success of individual stories for determining the pace of advancement of the literature, the stories are classified into five categories, ranging from the best to the weakest. Stories dealing with witch-craft and folklore are viewed as a separate entity which, even while cutting across the other classificational categories, demand unique qualities of their own for elevating them into acceptable artistic works of contemporary kinds. The chapter concludes that, although the bulk of the stories is deficient in one respect or the other, a sizeable number does achieve standards which point to an optimistic future for the growth of the short story form. Chapter Four discusses Zambia's first ever formally published novel, Andreya Masiye's Before Dawn. Its thematic intentions - centering around the author's own life and the notion of clash between African indigenous and alien cultures - is identified, and its merits examined. It is judged to be a novel which, in comparison with the conventional Western novel and the more remarkable African novels, could be deemed to have many faults but, as a story - the basic element of the novel - holds very well together and is very readable. It surely offers a worthy genesis for the Zambian novel. The first Zambian internationally known novel - Dominic Mulaisho's The Tongue of the Dumb - is the subject of Chapter Five. It is judged to be a definite advance on Before Dawn, and to rank higher than the generality of African novels. A penetrating focus on human character and behaviour turns an essentially socio-cultural novel into a shrewed probe of the psychology of political personality and ambition. Serious inconsistencies of plot tend to detract from the overall success of the novel. In Chapter Six, Gideon Phiri's two novels, Ticklish Sensation and Victims of Fate, are examined. Phiri deals with the theme of love and marriage, especially the agonizing process by which youth attain to the joys and responsibilities of these adult interests. He is not an entirely serious writer, and his conception and portrayal of love contains much crudity. However, his latter novel is an obvious improvement on the first and, so, he shows promise of growth. Chapter Seven - a sort of supplement to the introduction - examines the critical tenets of what has been called the Zambian literary Movement. This comprises al actions and activities, other than actual creative writing, undertaken by individuals or institutions (the government, educational establishments, publishing firms, voluntary organizations and others), in direct support of Zambian writing. It is considered that these activities have had a strong influence on the tendencies and quality of the writing examined from chapters Two to Five and that, to pass a valid judgement in the concluding chapter, it is necessary to gain an insight into the tenets of the movement. The chapter concludes that most institutions were disposed to lend support to the literature, but that while certain of their actions may have resulted in inter-group conflicts, some of their critical criteria may have demoralized the potential writer. Nonetheless, to these groups and individuals is due the credit for much valuable pioneering work. The concluding chapter identified the overall merits and lapses of the writing examined. Among the most serious of the weaknesses, there is the somewhat general inclination towards themes which are not of much serious relevance in the overall life of the Zambian society: romance among school children; urban petty crime; bar life; laxities in love and marriage, and so on. Much amateurishness in language use is also evident, and the concept of literature is still very much limited to the story element. On the credit side, a core of writers has attained real excellence to provide a firm basis for the future growth of the literature, six novels and a number of short stories, written in the period from 1976 to the present (1981) are briefly considered. They show that a lot of the lapses of the earlier period are being overcome, and that one can look forward to an immediate future of true greatness
- ItemOpen Access''Form and Style in the Nigerian Novel''(University of Lagos, 1981-02) Akporobaro, Frederick . Bareki. Oghenewona.In the relatively short period (1952-1978) of its life so far, the Nigerian novel has displayed a remarkable growth in which various forms and techniques have been exploited. The cost significant stimulus for this rapid growth had been the novelist' interest in the portrayal of the realities of contemporary Nigerian world and experiences, and by the faithful representation of these aspects, to correct the prejudices which generations of Europeans have created about the black man, and his culture. In doing this most of the novelists have ironically drawn upon the pre-established western fictional forms and the English language.
- ItemOpen AccessFirst Ten Years of Zambian Prose Fiction in English.(University of Lagos, 1981-06) Okenimpke, Michael. Nodinim.The study examines the mode of emergence and pattern of growth of Zambia prose fiction in English in the decade from 1964-1975, and makes an attempt at identifying the thematic tendencies and analysing the technical approaches of that body of witting. In the period, four full-length novels and several hundred short were published. It is upon this body of writing that primary attention is focused in the study. Each chapter takes up a separate aspect of the subject.
- ItemOpen AccessTraditional Elegiac Poetry of the Igbo: A Study of the Major Types.(University of Lagos, 1981-07) Uzochukwu, Samuel. Udezuligbo.This thesis is an in-depth of the poetic qualities of one distinctive form of Igbo traditional elegiac poetry, abu akwamozu. In chapter 1, after a general survey of Igbo traditional poetry there follows a brief review of the existing literature on this material as well as a critical look at the classification. Chapter 2 starts with a discussion of the sociological background of Igbo traditional elegiac poetry. The emphasis here is on the significance attached to death, burial, and funeral celebration by the Igbo. Thereafter, the role, the performance, and the audience of the traditional funeral artists are discussed. Chapter 3 treats the general features of the traditional elegiac poetry by examining how emotion and thought, the kernels of any poetic experience, are portrayed in this form of poetry. Two parallel classifications of the poetry are here proposed based (a) on the content criterion and (b) on the performance criterion. Chapter 4 deals with the content of the poetry. Three themes which feature prominently in Igbo traditional elegiac poetry, namely the theme of death, the theme of religion, and the theme of social value and norms, are here discussed. Chapter 5 comprises an analysis of the structure of each of the types of the poetry, namely chants, songs, and reactions. Chapters 6 and 7 deals with the style of the poetry under study. In chapter 6 there is an examination of the nature of Igbo poetic rhythm in general as well as a description of the constituents of Igbo poetic rhythm as manifested in Igbo funeral chants, songs, and recitations. Chapter 7 is concerned with the various ways that the Igbo language is manipulated for stylistic effects in the traditional elegiac poetry being studied. The conclusion of the thesis is set out in chapter 8. Briefly, this is the observation that Igbo traditional elegiac poetry is age-old, and its multifarious oral material very enormous.
- ItemOpen AccessAn Expository Analysis of Ujjamese Religious Chants of the Ekiti- Yoruba(University of Lagos, 1981-12) Olutoye, Omotayo.The study of Ùjaamèșè chants is an attempt at opening up a new area of Yoruba research, viz. research into the genes of Yorùbá oral poetry of the Ekìtì - Yorùbá on which very little work has been done hitherto, whereas there have been postgraduate studies on Ijálá, Rárá Ifá, and Sángó-Pìpè of the ὸyȯ- Yorùbá, The study is in three parts. Part one which consists of three chapters, gave a comprehensive background to the material. Chapter 1 presents the extent and climate of the area of study, its people, their occupations and the type of oral poetry performed and enjoyed by them. In chapter 2, the religious background of the chants is described and the deity relevant to the chants, viz. Qlύa, is briefly portrayed. There is an account of the worship of Qlύa in ótan-Ayégbajú, Igédé-Ekìtì, Igbàrà-Odȯ; and Idȯ, Igbolé, Ilógbὸ, Osì and Ùsi-Ekìtì. At the end of the chapter, the establishment of distinct position for Qlύa in the hierarchy of Yorùbá deities and divinaties, is essayed. Chapter 3 contains a description of the Ekìtì- Yorùbá dialect used in the chants. In part two, also made up of three chapters, the subject matter of Ùjaamèșè is copiously discussed. Chapter 4 deals with the religious content of the chants- the invocation and supplication to Qlύa. Chapter 5 treats the orìkì of selected clans, groups and inividuals as they occur in the chants; while chapter 6 is devoted to the didactic sayings in Ùjaamèșè. The form of Ùjaamèșè is examined in details in the first two chapters of part three. Chapter 7 deals with the inner form of the chants, while chapter 8 concentrates on the outer form. Finally, chapter 9 presents the conclusion to the thesis. Representative examples of the texts of the chants as transcribed from tape recordings made in ìdó, Igbόlé, Ilógbό, Ȯsi and Ùșì- Ekiti respectively are provided in Appendix A. The Yorùbá texts and their English renderings appear on opposite pages.
- ItemOpen AccessThe Yakurr: A Reconstruction of Pre-Colonial History(University of Lagos, 1983) Ubi, A.OThis study attempts to use oral sources to reconstruct the pre-colonial history of the Yakurr of South-Eastern Nigeria. The Yakurr now inhabit the territory located between latitude 5040' and 6010' North and longitude 8050' East. This area is about 140 kilometres north-west of Calabar - capital of the Cross River State. The focus of the research is on Yakurr Migration and settlement and the economic, political and social effects of the migration. The original home of the Yakurr was along the Nigeria-Cameroun borderline. It was from here that a military defeat from the Yakpa compelled the Yakurr to migrate to their present territory. In this new homeland the Yakurr established five new settlements: Ugep, Ekori, Nko, Nkpanu and Idomi and found themselves in a strategic position able to benefit from the Cross River trade. Yakurr participation in this trade brought significant effects to bear on the economy. The exposure to the Cross River trade also had some effects on the political system. A new class of wealthy traders emerged and sought to translate their wealth into political power. New political institutions emerged. Following an increased population and a new economic situation the Yakurr successfully extended their territorial frontiers by warfare. The allocation of "grabbed" land brought about a series of intra-Yakurr misunderstandings. As a solution the Yakurr attempted to bind all their settlements under a confederal system. The institution of Ngbeke was the symbol of this new constitutional experiment. However, the British punitive expedition of 1898 (which in actual fact was an imperal conquest of Yakurr) did not allow the confederal to succeed.
- ItemOpen AccessCrisis Management and the Organisation of African Unity (1963-1980)(University of Lagos, 1983-05) Egemonye, W.R W.RAfter World War II, competition between the United States and Russia together with their growing mastery of weaponry in the nuclear field helped to bring about structural change in the international arena. This also resulted in a change in the structure and nature of international crisis. It was realised that the new design of the nuclear based international system demanded a new approach to handling crisis. This new approach is called crisis management. It is obvious that the new structure developed because of needs felt by the dominant powers, the Soviet Union and the United States to deal with Cold war trends'. Thus, crisis management between the superpowers is an exercise as to strategic interests whether in conflict or not. "The main purpose of forming structures for crisis management is to develop rational procedures to meet unexpected contingencies and to search for options which minimise the adversary's threats and maximize one's own self-interests, without turning to war"2. For example, after Word War II, the United Nations was formed essentially, as stated in its charter, "to keep the peace" or as a crisis control agency. Member states are asked to "refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any states"3. Emphasizing a distorted concept of collective security buttressed partially by a recognition of the balance of power framework, the architects of the UN Charter were well aware of the limited possibilities of dealing with and controlling crisis of a global basis.4 The three central organs of the UN; the security Council, the General Assembly, and the Secretariat in themselves cannot adequately deal with violations of international peace. Any collective response is determined by a willingness of nation-states to act willingly. Nowhere is this more evidence than in the Security Council where a veto by any of the five permanent members can block not only a resolution but an enforcement of an action designed to bring about security. But there are structural deficiencies in any supranational or national organisation, which does not limit its potential for solving crisis. True crisis management has become an institutionalised science. The practical operational elements of management science were first put to test in the Cuban missile crisis, with more or less positive results. However, since the sixties, crisis management as a science failed to yield the success that had at first seemed probable, i.e. Vietnam and the Arab-Israeli War of 1967. Although crisis management is still used academically to refer to institutionalised structured planning for the containment of crises; it has more or less evolved into a rather personal face to face diplomacy, such as that exercised by former United States Secretary of state Henry Kissinger.5 Still crisis management, as handled, on an institutional level has not yet been greatly studied. Therefore, it is of great importance that such a performance study be undertaken with a flexible, yet scientific method of research. In this study of the organisation of African Unity, I have undertaken to evaluate the various systems for crisis management. Are the check and balance systems of the O.A.U. operative and functioning according to a specific plan? Therefore the title of the thesis is "Crisis Management and the O.A.U. (1963-1980)". The thesis is an in-depth study of the Organisation of African Unity its structure, and its crisis management ability. In Chapter 1, there is a general History and detailed discussion of the O.A.U. and its structure. Chapter 2 deals with the O.A.U. and a theoretical framework for crisis management. Theories about third party role in crisis management as distinct from self-management by parties involved, one nation-third party manager as distinct from an organisation acting as crisis manager, including theories about mediation, conciliation, and arbitration are discussed together with more information on the O.A.U. Commission of Mediation, Conciliation, and Arbitration. Chapter 3 treats the subject. "The O.A.U. and Boundary/Territorial Disputes". Disputes involving Somali-Ethiopia, Somalia-Kenya, Morocco-Algeria, Morocco-W/Sahara are used as case studies. Chapter 4 deals with the subject, "The O.A.U. and Internal Crisis". The classic case studies used are the Congo Crisis (1964-65), the Sudanese Civil War, the Nigerian Civil War, the Angolan and Chad crises.
- ItemOpen AccessThe Dilemma of the Woman as Writer and Protagonist in Contemporary African Fiction.(University of Lagos, 1984-11) Chukukere, C.GThis study examines the dilemma of the woman as writer and protagonist in African fiction, south of the Sahara Major critical works, anthologies and writings on creative literature have not always paid adequate attention to women. Female writers have suffered from social and academic limitations that have unfortunately forced them to produce less than their male counterparts, in literary terms. The results of these limitations include the persistence of a male-dominated point of view which has made difficult the emergence of the female writers' self-perceptions which could offer unique insights into the inner and external realities of African Womanhood. Thus, the paucity of attention paid to women as writers and protagonists and the various ways in which writers - male and female - present their heroines have encouraged the need to examine further the female character in African fiction. The study is in two parts. The first part approaches the dilemma of the woman in fiction from the standpoint of male writers such as Cyprian Ekwensi, Sembene Ousmane and Abrahams. Although Onitsha pamphlet authors and Cyprian Ekwensi present heroines who appear to be flat traditional stereotypes, other writers like Sembene Ousmane correct any assumption that all female characters created by male novelist lack depth of character and potential revolutionary attributes. These varied and sometimes complex approaches also characterize the female writers' response which constitutes the second part of the study. As would be expected, writings by the women studied show a preponderance of female characters. Through the realistic and in-depth exploration of their heroines' fictive lives, female writers often depart from male fantasies to explode myths about women. For example, Flora Nwapa, Buchi Emecheta and Bessre Head expose, the turbulence that engulfs the lives of their heroines who are torn between obedience and self-assertion. Also, characters are realistically handled: hence the faithful portrayal of the heroines' strengths as well as their weaknesses. As writers of fictions, women have contributed qualitatively to the development of African literature. Of significance is Flora Nwapa's contribution in the area of family life and in the utilization of the dialogue structure to reflect the daily lives of her protagonists. Grace Ogot succeeds as a unique short story writer while Bessie Head particularizes the tensions of apartheid through the examination of the innermost recesses of a woman's mind. The female writers' respective visions thus combine with those of the male writers to assist towards the unfolding of the complex and diverse images of the woman in contemporary African fiction.
- ItemOpen AccessA Soci-Stylistic Analysis of Orin Agbe: A Multimodal Genre of Yoruba Oral Poetry.(University of Lagos, 1985-02) Alaba, Isaac. Olugboyega.This study attempts a detailed description and analysis of Yorùbá agbé art - a verbal poetic song and art from that belongs to the Yoruba oral literacy genre. The study contextualizes agbé verbal art in a socio-historical perspective showing its religious and secular dimensions. It discusses in detail both its entertainment and oral–poetic aspects, and how it resembles and/or differs from other genres. The communicative functions, the aesthetic functions, and the ritual functions of the genre study are shown as being intertwined; and the socio-stylistic approach adopted in the study reveals the essence of inter-personal relationships in Yoruba traditional society. An aspect of the message of agbé art form is that the poor masses are exploited by the minority elite class but the former ‘’must realize that that is how God has made the world.’’ Ironically, even though the agbé artists know they belong to the exploited poor in the society, their art form is often performed for the delight of the traditional elite class. This partly responsible for why there is very little evidence of protest songs in their performance. Although they may be aware of certain inequalities in their immediate environment, their art form cannot be said to consciously address the controversial socio – political issues of our contemporary society.
- ItemOpen AccessA Socio-Economic History of the Western Delta of Nigeria (1914-1960)(University of Lagos, 1987) Apena, I.AThis work is a study of the socio-economic consequences of colonialism on the people of the Western Delta. It questions whether or not the presence of British colonial administration and the activities of the British firms contributed to the progress and welfare of the people. It also seeks to examine the reactions of the people to government policy as well as the programmes and the activities of the expatriate firms. The Western Delta had been in contact with European traders since about the fifteenth century. It came under colonial rule by 1914 following British conquest. Between 1914 and 1929 the major features of the colonial economy were being established and by 1929 they had become clear-cut. The colonial economic policy favoured exploitation of the oil palm industry while it neglected the rubber industry. There was a symbiosis between the public sector represented by the government and the private by the commercial firms, principally the United African Company (UAC). Not only did the UAC participate in the exploitation of both the oil palm industry and rubber, it also initiated the mechanisation and modernization process of these industries. The UAC and, to some extent, the John Holt contributed in major ways to port development, to industralisation and provision of some basic infrastructures and social amenities for the people. These measures contributed to the growth and development of both the export and domestic sectors of the economy. From this standpoint, it is difficult to accept entirely the view of the Marxists scholars that the story of the colonial economy is one of retardation, underdevelopment and poverty. It is difficult to assess who, among the firms, the government and the people were in the final analysis, beneficiaries of the economic exploitation of the natural resources. This is because of lack of sufficient statistical data, although it is proved qualitatively that the people did employ some benefits. It is hard to condemn altogether the symbiotic relationship between the government and the commercial firms in the light of the developments in the capitalist system. Colonialism did contribute to capital accumulation among the indigenous entrepreneurs in the western Delta. And a major conclusion of this study is that colonialism did have its positive and negative effects on the people in the study area.
- ItemOpen AccessA History of the Eastern Niger Delta 1885-1960. Challenges and Responses of a Society in Transition".(University of Lagos, 1988-04) Abam, S.AThe major factor in the history of the Eastern Niger Delta is not just the increase of the trans-Atlantic trade from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries and the momentum it gathered, but colonialism which that trade eventually ushered in with revolutionary changes in the twentieth century. Although the formal colonial period itself was short, yet its consequences were profound and decisive, resulting as they did in the over-thrown of indigenous rule. An outstanding implication of the loss of political and military power by the Delta rulers was the way it altered previous historical relationships both with Europeans, and African neighbours in the delta hinterland. That is what has been stressed in the main body of this work. Although there was economic interdependence between coastal communities and their hinterland neighbours, (and this was a crucial factor in the events of the period) the superior position of the delta middlemen before the colonial era was never in doubt. The nineteenth century saw the coastal communities at the height of their economic primacy but the colonial conquest with the cooperation of European merchants and Christian Missionaries dealt fatal blows on their political and economic power. Colonialism ushered in new power and economic relationships between the Ijo communities and the British and between them and their economic pre-eminence to their hinterland neighbours. While colonialism is generally regarded as exploitation of the economic resources of the colonised, this did not happen in the case of the Eastern Niger Delta Communities. Rather it was a case of neglect due to the non-availability of the resources demanded by the colonial power. The colonial period was therefore marked by a gross neglect of the Eastern Niger Delta Communities in matters of Socio-economic development. Colonialism however, tended to unify the people politically, and the effect of the challenges posed by the colonial situation reduced inter-community clashes and paved the way to a common platform for political action in the late 1940s for a demand for a Rivers State among others. Indeed, like an army with no line of retreat or hope of escape; the people of the Eastern Niger Delta Stoutly fought the many odds of their changing economic and political environment, developments which established the conditions for the ultimate creation of states in Nigeria in the first decades of the post-colonial era. But these events should not only be seen as part of the general link in the endless chain of history, they also make it copiously manifest that the historical past of the Eastern Niger Delta had been a record of continuous dialogue between economic and political forces.
- ItemOpen AccessA Comparative Study of the Cloze Procedure and Two other Methods of Measuring Readability in English as a Second Language(University of Lagos, 1988-04) Ikegulu, B.OMost cloze testing research has centred on the traditional model of deleting every - 5th word, providing blanks of standard length, and accepting only exact word replacements in scoring (E5-V). In the present study, eight cloze formats were compared for their ability to generate differing rates of response accuracy as well as their estimated concurrent validity and reliability. These formats were derived by combining levels of three independent variables: deletion strategy (Every 5th versus Total Random), blank condition (Standard versus Cued), and Scoring model (Verbatim versus Synonymic). Results obtained from the analysis of cloze test performance of 400 form three students drawn from eight school Management Committee zones of Lagos State revealed a generally increased performance across the every - 5th, Cued and Synonymic format (Es + S). When used with different ability ranges (Skilled and less-skilled readers), the Every 5th, Cued and Synonymic format also generated a superior performance over others by generating mean scores most similar to the accepted reading competence levels of the subjects. When compared with two other measures of readability, the Multiple-Choice Comprehension tests and Fry's Readability formula, a high positive correlation was recorded between this eclectic cloze procedure formats, and indeed almost all the other alternatives and multiple choice-tests. The E5 + S format also compared favourably with the reading levels assigned to the texts and materials for the study by generating scores which placed most of the subjects at both the independent and instructional levels of the reading passages. Results confirm and extend the findings of earlier studies that investigated cloze alternatives to a second language situation. Psychometric and psycholinguistic advantages of the alternative cloze from are discussed.
- ItemOpen AccessThe Nature of Nothing in Heidegger's Phenological Ontology.(University of Lagos, 1988-07) Unah, I.JThe objective of this study is to expound and amplify the thesis that "Even Nothing is Something". The thesis itself is one of the far-reaching consequences of Heidegger's phenomenological ontology. Ontology, for Heidegger, is the science of the Being of entities. The task proper to ontology is the exhibition of the general structures of the world. Phenomenology is the method of exhibiting entities as they are without preconceptions. The outstanding phenomenon of phenomenological thought for Heidegger is the Being of entities. Now if ontology is the inquiry into the general profiles of entities, and if phenomenology is the orientational habit of letting the Being of entities be seen, one can understand why Heidegger insists that "Only as phenomenology is ontology possible". But if ontology is possible only as phenomenology, are we to take it that all forms of ontology are phenomenological in character? If all forms of ontology are phenomenological in character, what is novel about Heidegger Being-talk? Heidegger is called upon to speak for himself in a phenomenological manner. By letting Heidegger speak for himself, we find that there is a sense in which ontology does not qualify as phenomenology and another sense in which ontology is phenomenology. A form of ontology (the traditional brand) which understands an assent only as an "object" cannot qualify as phenomenology. But the ontology (Heidegger's) which understands an assent as an "object" easily qualifies as phenomenology. In the Heideggerian sense of ontology an entity is exhibited in aspects. As "ejects", entities show themselves exactly as they are. Now the "thing in itself" which has perplexed traditional ontology is revealed in the conception of Being as an "eject", that is, as that which manifests itself as it is in profiles. This is the novelty of Heidegger's concept of Being: That a being exhibits itself, not as static, fixed object, but as eject, as that which spills forth in aspects, as that which shows itself as it is in itself in profiles. This dynamic conception of Being as "ejects" rather than as "objects" has a capacity of defrosting the frozen metaphysical tradition, of radicalizing metaphysics which hitherto has distorted "Nothing" out of its original nature. And phenomenology shows, by the doctrine of intentionality, that whatever is thought of by the mind or that whatever image or aspect of objects the human imagination produces must, in one form or other, be true about the world. In other words, the mind cannot think of nothing where nothing is taken to mean "not anything". Whatever the mind thinks about must be something meant or intended by the subject. Hence "nothing" must in some sense be something. Yes, it seems a pointless triviality to talk about nothing. Science frown at it. Logic would have none of it. Kant recoils from it in the Trancendental imagination because it threatens to overturn the supremacy of logic. But Heidegger would pursue it unflinchingly because there - in Nothing as Dasein's transcendence - lies the true source of man's natural propensity towards metaphysics. And metaphysical thought had far-reaching consequence since it usually informs social, economic, political, ethical, religious and even scientific preoccupations Our task in articulating Nothing, therefore, is to confront the decisive question of our era: the question of intolerance of opinion, of totalitarian tendencies, of fanaticism and war. Thus, if we want to mellow down the bellicose temperament of mankind, if we want to overcome the "threats of nihilism and gadgetry:, and if we want to show respect for the distinctively human, we have to insist that even nothing is something.
- ItemOpen AccessTranscendental Subjectivity as the Foundation of Knowledge: A Critique of Edmund Husserl's Epistemological Foundationalism.(University of Lagos, 1989-01) Owolabi, A.KThis study intends to show that Edmund Husserl's theory of transcendental subjectivity is inadequate as the ultimate ground and the absolute standard of justification for all epistemic claims. Epistemology - the branch of philosophy that investigates the nature of human knowledge - has been dominated throughout its history by the belief that there can be one ultimate source of all knowledge claims and that this source should also play the role of the standard of justification for our knowledge claims. Recently this position has been tagged "epistemological foundationalism". Edmund Husserl (1859 - 1938), popularly known as the father of the phenomenological movement, has within his philosophy an epistemological foundationalist theory. Husserl was an admirer of Rene Descartes who without any doubt is the ideal foundationalist. In fact, Husserl's foundationalism is a revised version of Descartes' foundationalism. Husserl's foundationalism which rests on the theory of transcendental subjectivity shall be shown to be untenable. We shall also argue that any form of foundationalism cannot be adequate since foundationalism emanated from the errorneous assumption that there can be an ultimate ground for the numerous knowledge claims that we may make. A theory of knowledge which sees knowledge as a dynamic enterprises is adopted in this thesis. This will do away with the dogmatism of foundationalism and accept multiple sources of knowledge instead of one ultimate source. It will see the justification of knowledge as being contextually determined and will deny any absolute a prior standard of justification. The consequence of this epistemic position on society at large is open-mindedness and tolerance. The new epistermic theory will serve as panacea for the manifold problems that foundationalism had created and it will call to order the dogmatism, fanaticism and intolerance which are inseparable from entrenched foundationalism and which we cannot afford in the contemporary world.
- ItemOpen AccessAwolowo on Leadership through Mental Magnitude and Democratic Socialism: Problems and Perspectives(University of Lagos, 1989-07) Ojo, O. A.This work is a critical study of the problems of political leadership and social integration for national development as they are perceived and treated in Awolowo’s socio-political philosophy. The latter revolves around these concepts i.e. leadership and socio-political integration. The study examines Awolowo’s conceptions of the prerequisites for political leadership (viz, ‘mental magnitude’), the ideal socio-political arrangement (democratic socialism), and the process of social transformation (through the universal mind). These conceptions are appraised primarily within the context of the reality of post-colonial African Societies. The main thesis is that despite the apparent coherence of Awolowo’s socio-political thinking, there are philosophically unsatisfactory claims and conclusions which arise from the categorial error of an unjustified leap from the material into the mystico-spiritual realms where faith plays a greater role than reason. Awolowo’s main concepts of dialectics, mental magnitude, and universal mind, in terms of which socio-political problems are interpreted, involve a problematic twist of the classical dialectics and a mystification of the role of consciousness. Thus, his socio-political thought, as it borders on a ‘’mystical weltanschauung’’, is not readily satisfactory to philosophers and social scientists. The study involves a systematic interpretation of scattered political discourses in order to evolve a coherent political thought. Notwithstanding the weakness, Awolowo’s political thought has yet its merits in being a more or less coherent set of guiding principles for national and perhaps international integration.
- ItemOpen AccessAzikiwe on Neo Welfarism: An Analysis of Contemporary Problems of Socio-Political Development and Integration.(University of Lagos, 1989-07) Agbafor, I.This study is aimed at analysing Azikiwe's perception of contemporary problems and to appraise the extent to which his Neo-Welfarist ideology provides solutions to them. The thesis of this dissertation is that Azikiwe's Neo-Welfarist ideology is not a totally and unquestionably reliable guide to economic development and political integration, even though the eclectic-pragmatic method which it suggests is attractive. The study reveals that the Neo-Welfarist ideology is not precise enough in its purported assimilation of the good elements in the different ideologies and economic doctrines. Azikiwe's perception of contemporary economic and political problems is examined. He suggests that imperialism whether or in anachronistic form of direct colonization or in the modern/indirect form called neo-colonialism, is the root-cause of the socio-political problems besetting the world today, particularly the erstwhile colonial societies. These problems militate against the pursuit and realization of the greatest happiness by a larger section of humanity. Azikiwe contrasts the poverty of the estwhile colonial societies with the affluence of the technologically-advanced (imperialist) nations of the world and maintains that both the poor and rich nations suffer from alienation. This alienation is in the form of separation (in contrast with alienation by surrender) along economic and ideological lines which all concerned need to supersede in order to build the desirable abundant and humane world society. Azikiwe maintains that to usher in wide-spread economic development, the avarious nations of the world need a new attitude to tolerance understanding of one another. He suggests that, given the adherence to different ideologies and economic doctrines, there is need for dialogue on ideologies with a view to harmonizing them by sifting and integrating their good aspects and making them work for the benefits of man. Azikiwe presents Neo-Welfarism as the outcome of his harmonization of the good elements of the different ideologies and economic doctrines on the principle of eclectic-pragmatism. In his view, the Neo-welfarist ideology is not only the panacea to the much-needed suitable ideology for the economic development of post-colonial societies, it is more adequate than either liberalism of communism. Thus, Azikiwe maintains that Neo-Welfarism should be adopted by all nations of the world as most suitable for tackling contemporary challenges of economic development and political integration.
- ItemOpen AccessJean-Paul Sarte's Theory of Human Freedom: A Critical Analysis.(University of Lagos Postgraduate School, 1990) Ndubuisi, N.FFreedom, a word that is most cherished by humanity, looks such an invaluable asset that everyone feels it is worth possessing. It is, however, not a settled matter as to what constitutes a man's freedom. Questions abound therefore as to its length and breadth, features and characteristics, it is puzzling as to the kind of freedom which a man that is limited by a lot of factors enjoys. Such constraints range from accident of birth and death, fear and emotions to psychological and mental influences which are beyond man's control. In the midst of these obvious facts in which a man is restively submerged, it is still maintained that freedom constitutes part of his being. Jean Paul Sartre sets out to solve this titanic problem. He looks into the problem in all its ramifications. He x-rays what the concept implies, its reality to man in practical life and the entailed consequences. Some Philosophers and Psychologists alike have tried to dismiss the notion of freedom as a mere illusion. For instance, Sigmond Freud, the father of psycho-analysis is of the view that all human actions, says, Freud, are therefore far from being free. On the contrary, they are the necessary effects of certain internal causes which Freud calls the "LIBIDO". Similarly, the metaphysical determinists such as Spinoza and Leibniz, the Pantheists such as Hegelians and the Stoics, the Theological determinists such as Calvin and Jansen, the fatalists and the economic determinists, all have negative and sceptical attitude to the view of human freedom as championed by Sartre. They believe that there are factors higher than man that controls his action, since man cannot separate himself from the forces in the world. In this dissertation, therefore, I am pre-occupied with how Sartre sets out to debunk some of the doubts that surround human freedom, the interpersonal relationship between the individual man and the world in which he lives. I also examine how he solves the problem of constraints to human freedom.
- ItemOpen AccessL'imaginaire Dans Les Romans De Camara Laye(University of Lagos, 1990) Azodo, U.ASeveral studies have been devoted to the narratives of Camara Laye. None of them, as far as we have been able to determine, has examined his novels as a unit whole, with the same protagonist who changes his name from time to time only to reflect the level of his spiritual and psychological attainment. This thesis contends that the novels of Camara Laye, that is L'Enfant noir, Le Regard du roi and Dramouss, seen as the creations of the imagination of the one and only mind of the author, deliver quite a connected philosophical and moral message to mankind. By employing the mythocritical methodology, we have been able to give anthropological dimensions to an apparent typical African writing. The emphasis was on the structural and anthropological analyses of symbols and images in the novels, and on the comparison of myths present in the works with other myths in world mythologies wherever and whenever it was possible to do so. After all myth, in a profound sense, is it not the totality of Man's journey on Earth, his destiny, his reaction to common events and other happenings around him, his beliefs, his sense of who he is and where he is going? The First Chapter of the study serves as the introduction of the thesis. It explores the meaning of the imaginary, reviews different opinions of philosophers and physicists on reality, as well as documents on the stand of several critics on the works of the author. Furthermore, this premier chapter gives the scope of the study, the aptness of the methodology in use, the rudiments of the method of investigation, the plan of the study and finally the technical vocabulary of the study. The Second Chapter surveys the network of symbols and images in the novels, putting them into their semantic groupings and establishing in that way an Initiatory Structure which encompasses a Time Structure and a Synthetic structure. Above all, this second chapter serves as the subject of chapters three to five. Chapter Three deals with the preparatory storage of the neophyte's departure for his spiritual and psychological quest. Chapter Four is on his adventures proper, his travails and tribulations as he journeys through nations of the world. Chapter five sees his "Rebirth" at the final stage of the spiritual and psychological attunement. Chapter Six is both a conclusion and a synthesis of the contents of Chapters One to Five. This final chapter posits the philosophical and moral values of the study. By extension, it is also a convergence of many of the previous criticisms of Camara Laye. From this study, it would seem that Camara Laye's message to Man in the World, in the face of the oppressive present, is a return to the primordial tradition, to the pre-reflexive intuitive era before the Tower of Babel. That period of great human understanding appears possible in the twentieth century-amidst ills of racism, discrimination of all nature, apartheid, materialism, bigotry, promiscuity, irreligiosity, drugs-only by man's fidelity to amoral code to ethics.