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- ItemOpen AccessThe Acquisition of HIV/AIDS Information by Commercial Sex Workers in Selected Brothels in Lagos State, Nigeria(2015-10) Kayode, O.OThe study is aimed at one of the ‘vector groups’, the commercial sex workers (CSWs), and how this group acquires, processes, and uses information from the several campaigns on HIV/AIDS in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study explores the application of uses and gratification theory to HIV/AIDS information acquisition by CSWs. The research problem is that CSWs being a “hidden population” are not only at a high risk of HIV/AIDS but are vectors due to several sexual partners, and may not practice safe sex despite their perception of high risk from exposure to several HIV/AIDS campaigns. Using the uses and gratification theory and the theory of reasoned action/planned behaviour, the study investigates how HIV/AIDS information has been utilized by CSWs. The theoretical assumptions of this study are that individual reasoning provides the impetus for human action and behavioural change and that health communication audiences exhibit such information behavior that is typified by active seeking and using of information and messages garnered from multi-media campaigns, in this case, HIV/AIDS communication channels. Population of the study comprises all CSWs in the 20 local governments in Lagos state. Fifteen local governments representing 75% were randomly selected using the table of random numbers. Using the brothels in the sampled local government as a unit of sampling, 70 brothels were identified of which 40 were randomly selected. Fifteen CSWs were conveniently selected from each of the 40 brothels constituting the sample size of 600 CSWs. The study employed a triangulation methodology that includes survey, focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs).The survey elicited responses from six hundred commercial sex workers all of whom are brothel-based. Forty eight CSWs (eight FGD sessions consisting of six CSWs per session) further participated in the FGD sessions. Furthermore, another 48 CSWs from the 600 sample size were further subjected to IDIs. Data analysis for the survey was done using the SPSS package 15th version and the FGDs as well as the IDIs transcripts were qualitatively analyzed. The study found that most (60%) of the CSWs interviewed have secondary school level education, and those who have post-secondary education are fewer (10%) and the age range of CSWs indicate that most are between 21 to 29 years. Furthermore, the study also found that most of the CSWs have a good understanding of HIV/AIDS, and have good comprehension and conviction of the multi-media messages to which they have been exposed over the years. They have used HIV/AIDS messages in learning safe sex skills. Also, the perceived risk of the commercial sex workers is relatively high as most of them understand what it takes to prevent HIV/AIDS, and that their work predisposes them to infection should they fail to practise safe sex. However, the study found that the CSWs’ ability to negotiate safe sex is inhibited by economic (monetary gains) and social factors (boyfriends, drunkenness, personal visits, etc.) in spite of their perceived risk of HIV/AIDS. The study recommends more multimedia interventions and campaign assessments, especially interpersonal and community based interventions.
- ItemOpen AccessAgenda Setting Theory: a Comparative Study of Two Communication Models in HIV/AIDS Coverage in Selected Nigerian Newspapers(School of Postgraduate Studies, 2009-12) Okidu, OFull texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessApplication of Unicef's Communication Model for Behaviour Change: Mother's Response to Polio Eradication Campaign in selected Nigerian States(2010-09) Adewumi, O.ANumerous studies have investigated the general and specific effects of the media of communication on attitude and behaviour modification or change, using different theoretical approaches. Since polio cases assumed worse dimensions in Nigeria between 2003 and 2006, the UNICEF-developed ACADA communication planning framework for behaviour change has been consistently used to address the communication issues related to the problem. This study was conceived to provide data for policy makers, advocacy groups, development agencies and communication scholars on how the ACADA model for behaviour change has been applied and how mothers in study locations have responded to the polio eradication campaign in selected states in Nigeria. The social marketing theory, of which the ACADA model is a sub-set, formed the theoretical framework for the study. Triangulation research method consisting of survey, focus group discussion and interview were used to obtain data for the study. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 800 mothers of child-bearing age from four states in the country. From two polio-free South-West states, 400 mothers were selected, made up of 100 each from Ikere and Ido-Osi LGAs in Ekiti State, Ayobo-Ipaja and Yaba Local Council Development Authorities in Lagos State. From two polio-endemic North-West, another 400 mothers chosen, comprising of 100 each from Kaduna North and Chikun LGAs in Kaduna State and Gwale and Rimin-Gado LGAs in Kano State. Focus group discussion was used to obtain additional data from mothers while interview method was used to obtain information from polio programme officers in the local governments. Data collection instrument was the structured questionnaire. Of the 800 questionnaire administered to respondents, 716 were returned, only 654 were correctly filled. Data were analysed at univariate, bivariate and multivariate levels using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Eight research questions were raised and eight hypotheses formulated for the study. This shows there is relationship between the application of ACADA model for behaviour change and the positive response of mothers to the polio eradication campaign in the four selected states. It further reveals that though most mothers were exposed to ACADA-related messages from the mass media, their decisions on polio immunisation were largely influenced by family members (43.9%), friends (11.9%), village or community leader (8.7%), religious leaders (6.2%), and traditional rulers (3.5%). The mass media altogether contribute only 12.3% of the influence of mothers. Data indicate that socio-psychological factors such as respondents’ knowledge, beliefs, values, and practices as well as their demographic attributes influenced their responses to the campaign. The study recommends that government and development agencies should identify and work closely with major influencers in each community in every social change programme. It further recommends that thorough formative research be carried out before embarking on any intervention in the society. Finally, the study recommends that the ACADA model for behaviour change be included in the curricula for communication studies in Nigeria.
- ItemOpen AccessAwolowo on Leadership through Mental Magnitude and Democratic Socialism: Problems and Perspectives(University of Lagos, 1989-07) Ojo, O. A.This work is a critical study of the problems of political leadership and social integration for national development as they are perceived and treated in Awolowo’s socio-political philosophy. The latter revolves around these concepts i.e. leadership and socio-political integration. The study examines Awolowo’s conceptions of the prerequisites for political leadership (viz, ‘mental magnitude’), the ideal socio-political arrangement (democratic socialism), and the process of social transformation (through the universal mind). These conceptions are appraised primarily within the context of the reality of post-colonial African Societies. The main thesis is that despite the apparent coherence of Awolowo’s socio-political thinking, there are philosophically unsatisfactory claims and conclusions which arise from the categorial error of an unjustified leap from the material into the mystico-spiritual realms where faith plays a greater role than reason. Awolowo’s main concepts of dialectics, mental magnitude, and universal mind, in terms of which socio-political problems are interpreted, involve a problematic twist of the classical dialectics and a mystification of the role of consciousness. Thus, his socio-political thought, as it borders on a ‘’mystical weltanschauung’’, is not readily satisfactory to philosophers and social scientists. The study involves a systematic interpretation of scattered political discourses in order to evolve a coherent political thought. Notwithstanding the weakness, Awolowo’s political thought has yet its merits in being a more or less coherent set of guiding principles for national and perhaps international integration.
- ItemOpen AccessAzikiwe on Neo Welfarism: An Analysis of Contemporary Problems of Socio-Political Development and Integration.(University of Lagos, 1989-07) Agbafor, I.This study is aimed at analysing Azikiwe's perception of contemporary problems and to appraise the extent to which his Neo-Welfarist ideology provides solutions to them. The thesis of this dissertation is that Azikiwe's Neo-Welfarist ideology is not a totally and unquestionably reliable guide to economic development and political integration, even though the eclectic-pragmatic method which it suggests is attractive. The study reveals that the Neo-Welfarist ideology is not precise enough in its purported assimilation of the good elements in the different ideologies and economic doctrines. Azikiwe's perception of contemporary economic and political problems is examined. He suggests that imperialism whether or in anachronistic form of direct colonization or in the modern/indirect form called neo-colonialism, is the root-cause of the socio-political problems besetting the world today, particularly the erstwhile colonial societies. These problems militate against the pursuit and realization of the greatest happiness by a larger section of humanity. Azikiwe contrasts the poverty of the estwhile colonial societies with the affluence of the technologically-advanced (imperialist) nations of the world and maintains that both the poor and rich nations suffer from alienation. This alienation is in the form of separation (in contrast with alienation by surrender) along economic and ideological lines which all concerned need to supersede in order to build the desirable abundant and humane world society. Azikiwe maintains that to usher in wide-spread economic development, the avarious nations of the world need a new attitude to tolerance understanding of one another. He suggests that, given the adherence to different ideologies and economic doctrines, there is need for dialogue on ideologies with a view to harmonizing them by sifting and integrating their good aspects and making them work for the benefits of man. Azikiwe presents Neo-Welfarism as the outcome of his harmonization of the good elements of the different ideologies and economic doctrines on the principle of eclectic-pragmatism. In his view, the Neo-welfarist ideology is not only the panacea to the much-needed suitable ideology for the economic development of post-colonial societies, it is more adequate than either liberalism of communism. Thus, Azikiwe maintains that Neo-Welfarism should be adopted by all nations of the world as most suitable for tackling contemporary challenges of economic development and political integration.
- ItemOpen AccessBehavioural Approach to Political Protest: an Analysis of Fela Anikulapo Kuti, 1970-1997(2011-12) Eesuola, O.SMost studies in political protest lack behavioral content. They focus on group actions such as industrial strikes, street demonstrations, riots and sit-ins; without explaining the behaviour of the individuals who partake in them. They also lack perspectives on the dynamics of factors that influence the behaviour of individual protesters as well as the forms that their protests take. Consequently, scholarly understanding of political protest appears narrow, and most theories that evolve from them are bedeviled with limited explanatory frameworks. This study is an exploration of the one man, self-styled political protest of Fela Anikulapo Kuti of Nigeria between 1970 and 1997. The study sought to understand the origin, nature and character of Fela’s protest, the actual socio-political contradictions that provoked his protest, the dimensions his protest took, as well as the impacts that his protest has on the Nigerian socio political milieu. Using concept mapping and evidence-strategy techniques to analyze Fela’s protest songs and key informants’ responses, the study asserted that protest behaviour in individuals is often inculcated through socialization, and it transforms to protest actions when individuals react to certain socio- political contradictions around them. The explorative study of the Fela phenomenon generates the conclusion that music and deviant behaviour are possible forms of political protest actions, but the aspect of deviance may deny the protest mass supports, prevent it from transforming to social movement, render it misinterpreted, or even completely counterproductive. The study recommended that governments need to create effective institutions of grievances expression in order to prevent violent political protests in their political systems. In like manner, individuals who wish to champion socio- political protests should desist from such behaviour or activities that their societies consider deviant.
- ItemOpen AccessBetrand Russell's Logical Atonism: a Synthesis of Rationalism and Empiricism(2000-08-28) Ogbinaka, O.MFull Texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessBeyond Walter Rodney's Development Discourse: Idealism to Praxis(2012-05) Adefarasin, V.OThe work argues the thesis that the adoption of Walter Rodney’s development discourse can serve as a viable paradigm for practically achieving the goals of integrated development in contemporary Africa if emphasis is placed on human development and effective leadership. Leadership, derives from the verb “to lead”. To lead means to “guide or cause to follow one” or to direct, as by persuasion or influence, to a course of, to conduct in a certain direction, or to be the head. Thus, leadership involves providing guidance to people for the purpose of achieving some specific goals. Leadership is the ability to take an initiative to motivate, to influence, to direct and control the thoughts, opinions and actions of the followers in any given society towards the achievement of purposeful desired goals. By human development, we mean the holistic qualitative improvement of human person and the society. Human development is when there are continuous opportunities given and open to man to improve his skill and abilities, to unleash his potentials, to be creative, self-disciplined, responsible, educated and patriotic. We therefore submit that the development of Africa is and will continue to be very much dependent on its human development and effective leadership. Almost all the countries in Africa need this paradigm shift in their leadership roles towards effective development. In Nigeria, for example, not until the country is able to evolve good leadership models and develop its human resources through functional, cultural, moral, socio-economically based, scientific and creative educational system, the aspirations of integrated development on the country will continue to be illusionary. This submission applies to all other countries in Africa. It is our conviction that a continent which is unable to develop the skills, knowledge and values of its people and effectively utilize them in the developmental process will not be able to develop anything else.
- ItemOpen AccessThe Casamance Peace Process: 1947-2004(School of Postgraduate Studies, 2009-12) Osemeka, I.NFull Texts attached
- ItemOpen AccessThe challenge of political and economic leadership of Nigeria in the West African Sub-Region 1914-1988(School of Postgraduate Studies of the University of Lagos, Akoka, 1992) Adejo, A.MAfrica's remains the centre-piece of Nigeria's foreign policy. The nation leaders, since independence, had attested to this but Nigeria's foreign policy, both in formulation and implementation, is conditioned by certain basic factors. The country is vast in geographical area and has considerable human and material resources. By the force of circumstances, Nigeria clearly dominates its immediate neighbours.
- ItemOpen AccessCharacterizing the lects of Nigerian English: a descriptive analysis of their syntax and lexis(School of Postgraduate Studies of the University of Lagos, Akoka, 1992) Okoro, OIt is a linguistic fact that when a language is used for a prolonged period outside its native-speaker environment, certain socio-cultural and linguistic constraints operate to give rise to varieties of the language which differ from its native form in several significant respects (phonological, syntactic, lexical and semantic).
- ItemOpen AccessCommitment in Soren Aabye Kierkegaard's Philosophy: Implication for Leadership(2012-11) Obaweki, J.OThis work argues the thesis that the adoption of Kierkegaard’s notion of commitment can bring about a responsive and responsible leadership in human society. This means that, with the right commitment, the absence of responsive and responsible leadership in the polity can be laid to rest. Kierkegaard’s ethical philosophy, which is embedded in his theory of stages, provides an insight into the analysis of the concept of commitment. The work is a critical study of the problem of commitment in political leadership in recognition of the fact that the best ideology will forever remain mere paper work if it finds itself in the hands of an uncommitted political leadership. Thus the thesis of this work buttresses our supposition as an attempt to solve an existential problem: the problem of commitment in political leadership. Commitment is intended to address the absence of commitment to an authentic cause, and failure to apply same towards national development. The study involves a concrete interpretation of Kierkegaard’s theory of stages – aesthetic, ethical and religious - on existential discourse in order to evolve a concept like commitment to address the problem of commitment in political leadership. Epistemologically, Kierkegaard’s notion of commitment as a means of attaining a responsive and responsible leadership will be an uphill task if not properly understood in its existential sense. The interpretation, however, allows one to choose the ethical within the three levels of human existence because there one lives a life that involves making a principled commitment to duty. To a great degree, Kierkegaard, a profound and provocative existential thinker, through his existentialism and his notion of commitment expressed in his three stages of human existence, has unwittingly provided the panacea to the problem of commitment in political leadership in a socio-political state. Although his ethical philosophy which is anchored on his theory of human existence, has been criticized on the ground that humans will always want to settle for an easy way out for the sake of pleasure, it is against this background that “COMMITMENT” is stressed. This is the gap in literature which the work aims at filling and has filled. Notwithstanding the perceived flaw, Kierkegaard’s notion of commitment has its merits in being more or less a guide to human behaviour, especially among political leaders and in the re-ordering of society. Thus, it is important to stress here that the notion of commitment in this work is in the “existential” sense, and that it is, as Soren Aabye Kierkegaard emphasizes in his ethical philosophy, embedded in his three stages of human existence. The term embraces, among other things, the capacity to choose and commit oneself to a particular course of action to bring about the moral, social and spiritual development of the individual which is relevant to the attainment of a responsive and responsible leadership, especially political leadership. The word “existential” is stressed to indicate that commitment must be lived, that is, it must show in our daily living. We therefore submit that responsive and responsible leadership on the political realm is a product of choosing the “ethical.” This work identifies the foundation of such a choice of the “ethical” in what is called “Kierkegaard’s Ethical Stage” which epitomizes his theory of commitment. The ethical stage is where one lives a life that moves one beyond the egotistic motives of the self to set oneself to duty through principled commitment. It is due to this lack of principled commitment from political leaders to qualitative leadership that Nigeria has witnessed the absence of a responsive and responsible leadership resulting in underdevelopment, insecurity, social instability, and low utilization of the human capital. This thesis has now addressed the problem.
- ItemOpen AccessA Comparative Analysis of Post-Conflict Peacebuilding in Liberia and Sierra Leone, 2000-2013(2015-06) Akhaze, R.EThis study examines the nature and structure of post-conflict peacebuilding in Liberia and Sierra Leone since 2000. It focuses specifically on peacebuilding process in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Previous researches on peacebuilding as a tool of conflict management have generated a lot of questions in academic circles. This is because there is a disagreement among experts on how peacebuilding works. The difficulty has been compounded by the fact that discussions on peacebuilding are often speculative, creating more confusion about the concept. Most of the existing studies on peacebuilding have focused on particular aspect of the subject, such as demilitarization, demobilization and related issues without discussing this in an integrated manner. This realization stimulated the need to understand the entire gamut of peacebuilding. It is against this background that this research examines the entire pillars of peacebuilding in Liberia and Sierra Leone with special reference to their similarities and differences. In addition, the study explores a wide range of issues involving disarmament, demobilization, democratization, economic restructuring and the reconciliation of war victims with the repentant rebels, the role of the local chiefs, individual and non-governmental institutions in peacebuilding in Liberia and Sierra Leone. In addition, the study discusses the problems militating against successful peacebuilding in both countries. The study adopts a historical approach, which relies on both primary and secondary sources of data collected by the researcher from Nigeria, Liberia and Sierra Leone to reconstruct the peacebuilding processes in both countries. Also, it adopts the comparative theory to explain the differences between cases that have striking commonalities. The study adopts “the progression towards positive peace theory” of analysis to explain the complex nature of post-conflict resolution in Liberia and Sierra Leone. The research demonstrates that only collaborative efforts of the government, private sector and civil societies can ensure successful peacebuilding in Liberia and Sierra Leone. The study reveals how several efforts aimed at resolving the crisis by both the governments of Liberia and Sierra Leone were frustrated by personal interest of the main actors, ethnic consideration and the domestic environment. A comparative analysis of the Liberia and Sierra Leone peacebuilding reveals that the intervention of multinational organizations such as the African Union, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and United Nations among others was decisive in achieving the present atmosphere of peace in both countries. The study recommends that governments should be more proactive in addressing issues of bad governance, corruption and greed to avoid a re-occurrence of violent conflicts.
- ItemOpen AccessA comparative study of British and French defence policies in West Africa 1886-1945(School of Postgraduate Studies of the University of Lagos, Akoka, 1991-08-28) Akinyeye, O.AThis work is a comparative study of the defence policies of the French and the British for the West African sub region between 1886 and 1945. Apart from slavery, one other theme that has received unequaled scholarship in African history is Colonialism.
- ItemOpen AccessA Comparative Study of the Cloze Procedure and Two other Methods of Measuring Readability in English as a Second Language(University of Lagos, 1988-04) Ikegulu, B.OMost cloze testing research has centred on the traditional model of deleting every - 5th word, providing blanks of standard length, and accepting only exact word replacements in scoring (E5-V). In the present study, eight cloze formats were compared for their ability to generate differing rates of response accuracy as well as their estimated concurrent validity and reliability. These formats were derived by combining levels of three independent variables: deletion strategy (Every 5th versus Total Random), blank condition (Standard versus Cued), and Scoring model (Verbatim versus Synonymic). Results obtained from the analysis of cloze test performance of 400 form three students drawn from eight school Management Committee zones of Lagos State revealed a generally increased performance across the every - 5th, Cued and Synonymic format (Es + S). When used with different ability ranges (Skilled and less-skilled readers), the Every 5th, Cued and Synonymic format also generated a superior performance over others by generating mean scores most similar to the accepted reading competence levels of the subjects. When compared with two other measures of readability, the Multiple-Choice Comprehension tests and Fry's Readability formula, a high positive correlation was recorded between this eclectic cloze procedure formats, and indeed almost all the other alternatives and multiple choice-tests. The E5 + S format also compared favourably with the reading levels assigned to the texts and materials for the study by generating scores which placed most of the subjects at both the independent and instructional levels of the reading passages. Results confirm and extend the findings of earlier studies that investigated cloze alternatives to a second language situation. Psychometric and psycholinguistic advantages of the alternative cloze from are discussed.
- ItemOpen AccessComparative Study of the Use of Information Communication Technologies in French Education in Selected Anglophone and Francophone Universities in West Africa.(2013) Anyika, D.ILes technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) sont un agent de changement dans l’économie de l’information en émergence. Elles ont révolutionné la société quoique de façon moins prononcée dans les pays en voie de développement où l’écart entre les TIC et le développement est très important. Les TIC ont imprégné tous les aspects de la vie et ont mis l’homme au-delà de ses capacités. Chaque aspect de l’activité humaine a fait d’énormes progrès grâce aux TIC, dans les domaines des finances, du commerce, des affaires, du divertissement, etc., où ils ont amélioré la qualité des services. Les TIC connaissent un développement sans précédent et, leur champ d’application s’étendant pratiquement à tous les domaines, elles prennent une place croissante dans le monde éducatif au sein duquel les langues vivantes apparaissent comme des bénéficiaires potentiels privilégiés. Si les exemples d’utilisation effective restent encore modestes et parfois incertains, l’imaginaire collectif assigne à ces outils un avenir prometteur et des efforts considérables sont d’ores et déjà engagés pour les promouvoir. Les TIC dans l’enseignement et l’apprentissage peuvent être utilisées pour améliorer la capacité productive de l’enseignant et accroître la portée et la qualité de l’apprentissage à tous les niveaux. Plus avantageuse est l’utilisation des TIC pour promouvoir l’autonomie de l’apprenant et l’apprentissage à vie.
- ItemOpen AccessThe concept of the absolute in Hegel's metaphysics as a principle of tolerance(School of Postgraduate Studies of the University of Lagos, Akoka, 1991-01) Nzenagu, C.OFrom its recorded beginnings western philosophy has sought a principle on the basis of which all other aspects of reality can be understood and explained. From the accounts of the activities of the gods the western mind moved gradually to an attempt at an intellectual grasp of the principles behind all manifestations.
- ItemOpen AccessThe Correlation Between Thinking and Acting in Hannah Arendt’s Socio-political Philosophy(School of Postgraduate Studies University of Lagos., 2008) Oni, P.I
- ItemOpen AccessCrisis Management and the Organisation of African Unity (1963-1980)(University of Lagos, 1983-05) Egemonye, W.R W.RAfter World War II, competition between the United States and Russia together with their growing mastery of weaponry in the nuclear field helped to bring about structural change in the international arena. This also resulted in a change in the structure and nature of international crisis. It was realised that the new design of the nuclear based international system demanded a new approach to handling crisis. This new approach is called crisis management. It is obvious that the new structure developed because of needs felt by the dominant powers, the Soviet Union and the United States to deal with Cold war trends'. Thus, crisis management between the superpowers is an exercise as to strategic interests whether in conflict or not. "The main purpose of forming structures for crisis management is to develop rational procedures to meet unexpected contingencies and to search for options which minimise the adversary's threats and maximize one's own self-interests, without turning to war"2. For example, after Word War II, the United Nations was formed essentially, as stated in its charter, "to keep the peace" or as a crisis control agency. Member states are asked to "refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any states"3. Emphasizing a distorted concept of collective security buttressed partially by a recognition of the balance of power framework, the architects of the UN Charter were well aware of the limited possibilities of dealing with and controlling crisis of a global basis.4 The three central organs of the UN; the security Council, the General Assembly, and the Secretariat in themselves cannot adequately deal with violations of international peace. Any collective response is determined by a willingness of nation-states to act willingly. Nowhere is this more evidence than in the Security Council where a veto by any of the five permanent members can block not only a resolution but an enforcement of an action designed to bring about security. But there are structural deficiencies in any supranational or national organisation, which does not limit its potential for solving crisis. True crisis management has become an institutionalised science. The practical operational elements of management science were first put to test in the Cuban missile crisis, with more or less positive results. However, since the sixties, crisis management as a science failed to yield the success that had at first seemed probable, i.e. Vietnam and the Arab-Israeli War of 1967. Although crisis management is still used academically to refer to institutionalised structured planning for the containment of crises; it has more or less evolved into a rather personal face to face diplomacy, such as that exercised by former United States Secretary of state Henry Kissinger.5 Still crisis management, as handled, on an institutional level has not yet been greatly studied. Therefore, it is of great importance that such a performance study be undertaken with a flexible, yet scientific method of research. In this study of the organisation of African Unity, I have undertaken to evaluate the various systems for crisis management. Are the check and balance systems of the O.A.U. operative and functioning according to a specific plan? Therefore the title of the thesis is "Crisis Management and the O.A.U. (1963-1980)". The thesis is an in-depth study of the Organisation of African Unity its structure, and its crisis management ability. In Chapter 1, there is a general History and detailed discussion of the O.A.U. and its structure. Chapter 2 deals with the O.A.U. and a theoretical framework for crisis management. Theories about third party role in crisis management as distinct from self-management by parties involved, one nation-third party manager as distinct from an organisation acting as crisis manager, including theories about mediation, conciliation, and arbitration are discussed together with more information on the O.A.U. Commission of Mediation, Conciliation, and Arbitration. Chapter 3 treats the subject. "The O.A.U. and Boundary/Territorial Disputes". Disputes involving Somali-Ethiopia, Somalia-Kenya, Morocco-Algeria, Morocco-W/Sahara are used as case studies. Chapter 4 deals with the subject, "The O.A.U. and Internal Crisis". The classic case studies used are the Congo Crisis (1964-65), the Sudanese Civil War, the Nigerian Civil War, the Angolan and Chad crises.
- ItemOpen AccessA Critical Discourse Analysis of Print Media Depictions of Insurgent Activities in Nigeria(2017) Ebim, M.AIt has been observed that studies on insurgency in Nigeria have in the most parts been anchored on politics, law, economy, the environment or religion; highlighting the economic implications of pipeline vandalism in the Niger Delta and religious crises in the north. Quite a few others have taken into consideration the use of language and representations of the phenomenon focusing on labeling and ideological dimensions inherent in the News. Though insurgency and its media reports are not recent occurrences in Nigeria, most studies on the subject have not engaged the issues prominently from a linguistic view point. In the same vein, there has been a dearth of scholarly works on the phenomenon of insurgency reportage especially from the perspective of language with a 23 specific focus on metaphor and semiotics. Insurgent activities in Nigeria have rather been viewed as political or religious issues while studies of their discourse elements from a linguistic perspective have been neglected. It is therefore necessary to investigate the nature and patterns of English usage in the Nigerian print media reports on insurgent activities beyond the level of micro linguistic structures. The present study analyzed the nature and patterns of language use in portraying insurgent activities in the Nigerian print media. Particularly, it examined the discourse patterns that seem to emerge from the news reports. The study focused on the settings, topical issues and the major actors projected in the content and context of print media reports of insurgent activities in Nigeria. The study presented the linguistic features engaged in the reportage from the perspectives of depiction and revealed discernible patterns of discourse in the reports. Data elicited from three Nigerian newspapers: Vanguard, This Day & Daily Trust were analyzed under these headings: bombing, vandalism, pollution, amnesty, educational terrorism and politics. The data were examined from the perspectives of depictions, significations, ideological projections and strategies of the news reports. The study established that language use in the media in relation to crises reportage is judgmental and is capable of causing disaffection through linguistic labels. The study analyzed, using the Peircean Semiot framework of Icon, Index and Symbol how specific patterns of meanings are expressed overtly and covertly and communicated through pictorial representations revealed that language use in crises reportage tends to be both an agent of peace and war depending on usages. It exposed the ideologies that shape news reports of crises thereby assisting members of the public to re-evaluate their perception of the insurgents based on media depictions. The study established that the media conceptualizes insurgency in Nigeria in metaphoric terms such as journey, warfare, sports, time and food because metaphors are strong source domains given that they provide a clear path with start and end points. This study thus unveiled the fact that: language use in the media in relation to crises reportage is judgmental and it is capable of causing disaffection through linguistic labels. It further explored semiotic constructs in Nigerian print media reports especially on insurgent activities by focusing on pictorial analysis to explicate the hidden messages in graphic illustrations of events. The study exposed the portrayal of insurgents and militants as stereotypes through the use of various shades of language that depict the insurgents in bad light. Since terrorism is alien to Nigeria and the nation was experiencing the menace of terrorism at the time of this research, the study is therefore a timely contribution to scholarship in that area from a linguistic perspective. It equally has the potential to promote peace and nation building through the reconstruction of media reportage on sensitive national issues.