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- ItemOpen AccessAge and Reasons for First Dental Visit Among Children in Lagos, Nigeria(2019-09) Olatosi, O.; Onyejaka, N.; Oyapero, A.; Ashaolu, J.; Abe, A.Background: An early first dental clinic appointment offers the prospect of prompt preventative care and parental education regarding the oral health of the child. The evidence‑based recommendation by dental professionals all over the world is that a child should visit a dentist before or by 1 year of age. Aim: This study aimed to determine the chronological age at and the purpose for a first dental clinic visit amongst children aged 16 years and below attending the Paediatric Dental Clinic at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted amongst children who attended the Paediatric Dental Clinic at the LUTH between January 2017 and December 2018. Data on age at first dental visit, reasons for attending and other information relevant to the study were collected. Descriptive statistics and Chi‑square analysis were conducted, and the level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: A total of 1157 children were studied, comprising 580 (50.5%) males and 577 (49.9%) females. Their mean age on their first dental visit was 7.9 ± 3.7 years. Most of the children (31.4%) had their first dental visits at 7 and 9 years, and 0.8% of the children had their first dental visit below the age of 1 year. The most common reason for visiting the dental clinic was dental pain (33.1%). A higher proportion of the children (911 [79.0%]) had their first dental visit for therapeutic purposes, whereas 246 (21.0%) children visited the dental clinic for preventive care. Sex and age at first dental visit were statistically significantly associated with the reason for attendance (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Most children had their first dental visit between the ages of 7 and 9 years, mainly because of pain. It is necessary to create more awareness among parents/caregivers and to establish the concept of dental home.
- ItemOpen AccessAnteroposterior, vertical and space malocclusions in adolescents with special needs in Lagos, Nigeria(Odontostomatologie Tropicale, 2011) Utomi, IL; Onyeaso, COObjective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion in adolescents with special needs and to compare the results with those of other authors. Methods: The study sample consisted of 230 adolescents with special needs aged 12-17 years randomly selected from 5 special school/ centres in Lagos. Occlusal anteroposterior relationships were assessed based on Angle classification. Results: Normal occlusion was seen in 11.7%, Angle’s Class I malocclusion in 77.4%, Class II malocclusion in 8.3% and Class III malocclusion in 2.6%. Over 63% had normal overbites, and 6.5% and 12.5% had increased and reduced values, respectively. Overjet relationship was normal in 50%, increased in 25.7% and reduced in 6.5%. Crowding was observed in 29% of the subjects and midline diastema in 27%. Males had a significantly higher prevalence of midline diastema than females (p< 0.05). The intellectually impaired had significantly higher frequency of Class II division 1 malocclusion and anterior openbite when compared with the other disabled groups. Conclusion: Class I malocclusion is the most prevalent occlusal pattern among adolescents with special needs. Statistically significant differences in occlusal pattern were observed between the disabled groups.
- ItemOpen AccessAssessment of Mothers' Oral Health Knowledge: Towards Oral Health Promotion for Infants and Children(Scientific Research, 2014) Oredugba, F; Agbaje, M; Ayedun, O; Onajole, AAim: To assess the knowledge and oral health practices of a selected population of mothers in order to develop appropriate oral health promotion program for children in the area. Method: A cross sectional study was carried out among a convenient sample of mothers who attended two well-baby clinics—a tertiary and a primary health care centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A questionnaire requesting personal information, previous exposure to and source of oral health education (OHE), knowledge of oral health, diet and oral hygiene practices was administered. Results: There were 104 participants, aged 21 - 46 years (mean 32.01 ± 4.85 years); 58.7% had received OHE, 23.1% from electronic media, 22.1% dentist and 9.6%, doctor or nurse. Only 44 (42.3%) had attended the dentist, 5 (4.8%) in <1 year and 10 (9.6%) within 1 - 2 years. Most younger mothers, compared with older mothers had knowledge of fluoride (x2 = 8.51, p = 0.014). Only 44 (42.3%) and 20 (19.2%) respectively believed the type of baby food and supplement affect the child’s teeth. Conclusion: Participants in this study showed inadequate knowledge of preventive oral health care. Regular OHE is recommended for mothers at the well baby and immunization clinics where they can be easily reached by health professionals.
- ItemOpen AccessAttitudes of Nigerian dentists towards Hepatitis B vaccination and use of barrier techniques.(West African Journal of Medicine, 2005) Utomi, I.L.Objective: Hepatitis B virus constitutes a significant threatb to the health of the dental professional. Infection with hepatitis B virus can however be prevented through hepatitis B vaccination and use of barrier techniques. This study therefore assesses the attitudes of Nigerian dentists towards Hepatitis B vaccination and use of barrier techniques. Materials and Method: A questionnaire survey of 160 dental practitioners in Lagos, Ife and Benin. Result: 48.1% had complete vaccination, 3.1% incomplete vaccination and 48.8% no vaccination. 97.5% reported routine use of glovesand 70.6% reported routine use of masks. 61.3% and 23.1% reported routine use of protective gowns and eyewear respectively. Conclusion: There is need to improve the rate of vaccination among Nigerian dentists and to encourage consistent use of barrier techniques.
- ItemOpen AccessBad-breath: Perceptions and misconceptions of Nigerian adults(Nigerian journal of clinical practice, 2015) Nwhator, S. O; Isiekwe, G.I; Soroye, M.O; Agbaje, M.OObjective: To provide baseline data about bad‑breath perception and misconceptions among Nigerian adults. Methods: Multi‑center cross‑sectional study of individuals aged 18-‑64 years using examiner‑administered questionnaires. Age comparisons were based on the model of emerging adults versus full adults. Data were recoded for statistical analyses and univariate and secondary log‑linear statistics applied. Results: Participants had lopsided perceptions about bad‑breath. While 730 (90.8%) identified the dentist as the expert on halitosis and 719 (89.4%) knew that bad‑breath is not contagious, only 4.4% and 2.5% associated bad‑breath with tooth decay and gum disease respectively. There were no significant sex differences but the older adults showed better knowledge in a few instances. Most respondents (747, 92.9%) would tell a spouse about their bad‑breath and 683 (85%) would tell a friend. Conclusions: Participants had lop‑sided knowledge and perceptions about bad‑breath. Most Nigerian adults are their “brothers’ keepers” who would tell a spouse or friend about their halitosis so they could seek treatment.
- ItemOpen AccessCauses and pattern of tooth loss in children and adolescents in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital.(Lagos University Medical Society, 2012-01-01) Olatosi, O.O.; Sote, E.O.Background: Tooth loss diminishes the quality of life and is also related to poorer general health. Premature tooth loss in children can have devastating effects such as compromised aesthetics and function, mesial and distal drifts of adjacent teeth leading to crowding and impaction of the permanent successors and other forms of malocclusion. Objective: To assess the causes and pattern of tooth loss in children and adolescents at the Paedodontic Clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at the Paedodontic Unit of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos using clinical records over a period of time from January 2008 to April 2010. Information obtained included age, gender, missing and extracted teeth, and reasons for extraction/tooth loss. Exfoliated primary teeth and congenitally missing teeth were excluded. Data was analysed using Epi info 2007 statistical software. Chi-square test was used to compare proportions of tooth loss among age groups. The level of significance was set at P<0.05 Results: A total of 493 patients aged 1-16 years had lost one or more teeth due to various reasons. There were 244(49.5%) males and 249 (50.5%) females. Majority of the subjects lost their teeth due to caries and its sequelae (64.3%) compared to trauma (10.8%) and orthodontic reasons (23.5%). Seven (1.4%) lost their teeth due to failure of previous treatment such as pulp therapy. Conclusion: Extraction largely due to caries and its sequelae was responsible for most of the tooth loss among the study population. There is the need for intensified oral health education and awareness programmes in the populace with emphasis on prevention of dental caries and early presentation for dental treatment in order to avert premature tooth loss in children and adolescents
- ItemOpen AccessA cephalometric assessment of the nasolabial angle of an adult Nigerian population(Nigerian Dental Journal, 2011) Isiekwe, G.I; daCosta, O.O; Isiekwe, M.CObjective: One of the most important components of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is an evaluation of the patient's soft tissue profile. An assessment of the nasolabial angle is a vital component of this evaluation. The purpose of this study was to establish norms for the nasolabial angle of an adult Nigerian population; compare the male and female values and to compare the values obtained for Nigerians with those reported for other populations. Method: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of one hundred students (44 males and 56 females) of the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, aged 18-25years were taken. Selected subjects were of Nigerian ancestry with normal occlusion. The radiographs were manual ly t raced and the nasolabial angle of each subject measured. 0 0 Result: A mean value of 84.35 +13.71 was computed for the entire sample. No statistically significant difference was observed between the male and female values (p>0.05), although 0 0 the males recorded a lower nasolabial angle (83.70 ) than the females (85.28 ).The nasolabial angle recorded in this study was similar to that reported for South African blacks, but much lower than that reported for Caucasian populations. 0 Conclusion: The mean nasolabial angle of 84.35 + 13.71 was observed in the Nigerian population studied. Sexual differences were not observed; however, the values observed in this study differ from that reported for Caucasians and other racial groups.
- ItemOpen AccessA cephalometric investigation of horizontal lip position in adult Nigerians(SAGE Publications, 2012) Isiekwe, G.I; daCosta, O.O; Isiekwe, C.MObjectives: The aims of this study were to (1) identify soft tissue cephalometric norms for horizontal lip position in an adult Nigerian population; (2) compare values for Nigerian males and females; and (3) compare Nigerian norms with established norms for Caucasians and other populations. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Lagos University Teaching Hospital Dental Clinic, Idi-araba, Lagos, Nigeria. Participants: One hundred students (44 males and 56 females) of the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, aged 18– 25 years, of Nigerian ancestry, with a normal class I occlusion and no facial asymmetry. Methodology: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of the subjects were taken in natural head position. Radiographs were manually traced and 11 soft tissue cephalometric parameters measured. These were derived from the Steiner, Ricketts, Burstone, Merrifield and Holdaway soft tissue analyses. Male and female values were compared using Student’s t-test with a level of significance at P,0.05. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed between Nigerian males and females in eight of the variables studied, with males having more protrusive upper and lower lips than the females. Variables, which did not vary by sex, were soft tissue facial angle, nose prominence and soft tissue chin thickness. In addition, Nigerian norms were higher than norms reported by Steiner, Ricketts, Burstone and Holdaway for Caucasian populations, while the Z-angle was lower than the norm established by Merrifield. Conclusions: Gender-specific soft tissue norms for horizontal lip position should be used for orthodontic treatment planning in Nigerian subjects. Nigerians have more protrusive upper and lower lips compared to Caucasians.
- ItemOpen AccessA cephalometric study of anteroposterior skeletal jaw relationship in Nigerian Hausa-Fulani children(West African journal of Medicine, 2004) Utomi, I.LObjective: To determine the antero-posterior skeletal jaw relationship in Nigerian Hausa-Fulani children Setting: This study was carried out in 1998 at the Maxillo-facial Unit of the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria. Materials and methods: 100 subjects aged 11-13years of Hausa-Fulani ancestry with no previous history of orthodontic treatmentwere selected for the study. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were traced and anolyzed to produce values for SNA, SNB and ANB. Results: The mean SNA was 82.4⁰, mean SNB 80.3⁰, and mean ANB 2.1⁰. The normal range of ANB values was 0.5-4⁰. Conclusion: The values obtained differ from those of other population groups and should be used as guidelines in the orthodontic treatment of the group studied.
- ItemOpen AccessChallenges and motivating factors of treatment among orthodontic patients(African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 2007) Utomi, I.LThe purpose of this study was to determine the challenges and motivating factors of treatment among orthodontic patients in Lagos, Nigeria. A questionnaire survey of 75 patients aged 10-28 years undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. About 82% of all the patients were teased about their appliance. Seventy -three percent of the subjects had difficulty with eating, 65.8% with oral hygiene and 37% with speech. Pain from the teeth was experienced by 69.9% of patients. Sixty-four per cent of the patients had a desire to discontinue treatment. Reasons for wanting to discontinue treatment included restriction to soft diet (37.5%), pain (20.8%), appearance (16.7%), missing school (12.5%), and effects on social life (12.5%). Restriction to soft diet and pain were reported as the worst aspects of treatment by 32% and 20% of the participants respectively. The most important motivating factors for continuing treatment were anticipated improvement in dental appearance (44%), and the determination to complete treatment (30.7%). The challenges of treatment among Nigerian orthodontic patients were considerable with no significant gender differences. Improving dental appearance and determination to continue treatment are major motivators for patients to continue orthodontic treatment. There is need for professional counselling of the Nigerian orthodontic patient.
- ItemOpen AccessCharacteristics and Study Motivation of Clinical Dental Students in Nigerian Universities(2006) Orenuga, O.O; da Costa, O.OA cross-sectional study of a cohort of 197 clinical dental students in the four accredited dental schools in Nigeria was conducted to determine the sociodemographic characteristics of these dental students and their motives for the choice of dentistry. The results indicate that the number of female dental students in Nigeria is increasing, which reflects a trend well established in virtually all other nations. The vast majority of Nigerian dental students (97 percent) qualified for school based on their performance on the University Matriculation Examination. About one-third, 32.5 percent, indicated that dentistry was their first choice for a career. This choice was greatly influenced by family in 50 percent of this group of students. There were several factors that strongly influenced career choice among students who indicated that dentistry was their first choice: interest, prestige, good employment opportunity abroad, and regular work hours. The need to go into a prestigious and financially lucrative profession similar to medicine were the commonest reasons identified by the group of students for whom dentistry was not the first career choice. The motives for choosing dentistry as a career in this group of students seem to relate to an image of dentistry as a vehicle for the achievement of personal goals. It is recommended that high school students be encouraged to see dentistry first hand. This is because in countries such as Nigeria it is not unusual for a potential dental student to have never visited the dentisT
- ItemOpen AccessCraniofacial Orthodontic Care amongst Orthodontists in Nigeria(West African Journal of Orthodontics, 2015) Isiekwe, G.I; Dacosta, O.O; Fashemo, D.VBackground: The aim of this survey study was to assess the clinical experience in cleft care and craniofacial orthodontics of orthodontists in Nigeria and to identify the challenges they face in providing care. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among 26 Orthodontists attending the annual scientific conference of the Nigeria Association of Orthodontists (NAO) in October 2014. The questionnaires were self-administered and contained 19 close ended questions, which evaluated the clinical experience of the respondents in different craniofacial orthodontic procedures and the challenges they faced in providing this sub-specialty service. Results: The response rate was 80.8%. Sixty two percent of the orthodontists were currently providing craniofacial orthodontic care at their respective centers. The most commonly performed procedure was pre-surgical infant orthopedics (96.4), while the least clinical experience was recorded in orthodontic preparation for orthognathic surgery (7.4%,). The two most commonly reported challenges (61.6%,) were the lack of working tools and materials and poor support from the hospital management. Conclusion: Orthodontists in Nigeria are currently providing a limited scope of craniofacial orthodontic care. A lot more needs to be done to overcome the current challenges being experienced and also to expand the scope of care provided.
- ItemOpen AccessCraniofacial orthodontics and postgraduate Orthodontic training in Nigeria(Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 2016) Isiekwe, G.IIntroduction: Craniofacial orthodontics has been shown to be a critical component of the care of patients with craniofacial anomalies such as cleft lip and palate. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions and clinical experience in cleft and craniofacial care, of orthodontic residents in Nigeria. Methodology: Questionnaires were sent out to orthodontic residents in the six Postgraduate Orthodontic Training Centers in the country at that time. The questionnaires were self‑administered and covered areas in beliefs in cleft care and the clinical experience and challenges faced by the residents in the provision of craniofacial orthodontic care at their various institutions. Results: Thirty‑three respondents returned completed questionnaires, with a response rate of 97%. All the respondents believed that residents should be involved in cleft and craniofacial care. Postnatal counseling was the clinical procedure in which the residents reported the highest level of clinical experience (47.4%). The least clinical experience was recorded in pre-bone graft orthodontics (7.4%) and orthodontic preparation for orthognathic surgery (5.5%). Some of the challenges highlighted by the residents were low patients turn out for orthodontic care and the absence of multidisciplinary treatment for craniofacial patients in their centers. Conclusion: Orthodontic residents in Nigeria believe that they should be involved in the management of patients with craniofacial anomalies and cleft lip and palate. However, majority of the residents have limited clinical experience in the management of these patients. A lot more needs to be done, to expose orthodontic residents in training, to all aspects of the orthodontic and multidisciplinary team care required for the cleft/craniofacial patient.
- ItemOpen AccessDental esthetics and oral health-related quality of life in young adults(American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentifacial Orthopedics, 2016) Isiekwe, G.I; Sofola, O.O; Onigbogi, OO; Utomi, I.L; Sanu, OO; daCosta, OOIntroduction: Dental esthetics affects how people are perceived by society and how they perceive themselves, and this may also affect their oral health–related quality of life (OHRQoL). The aim of this study was to compare the impacts of self-perceived and normatively assessed dental esthetics on the OHRQoL of a young adult population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving 375 undergraduate university students, aged 18 to 30 years old. Data collection was carried out through oral examinations and selfadministered questionnaires. Dental esthetics of the students was assessed using the esthetic component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Two OHRQoL instruments were used: the shortened version of the Oral Health Impact Profile and the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire. Results: Statistically significant relationships (P \0.05) were recorded between both self-perceived and normatively assessed dental esthetics of the students, respectively, and 3 of the 4 Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire subscales: dental self-confidence (Kruskall-Wallis, P 5 0.000; P 5 0.000), psychological impact (P 5 0.003, P 5 0.047), and esthetic concern (P 5 0.006, P 5 0.003). The only exception was the social impact subscale, in which a significant relationship was recorded only with selfperceived dental esthetics (P 5 0.040). For the shortened version of the Oral Health Impact Profile scale, marked differences were also observed between the impacts recorded for both self-assessments and normative assessments, respectively, particularly for the psychological disability domain (Fisher exact test, P 5 0.021, P 5 0.000; P 5 0.064, P 5 0.096). Conclusions: Differences exist between the impacts of selfperceived and normatively assessed dental esthetics on the OHRQoL of young adults, particularly in the psychosocial domains. These differences should be considered in orthodontic treatment planning for young adult populations.
- ItemOpen AccessDeterminants of journal choice among Nigerian medics(Pan African Medical Journal, 2013) Nwhator, S.O; Agbaje, M.O; Soroye, M; Isiekwe, G.IIntroduction: Despite the well-known maxim "publish or perish" among academicians, productivity remains low in Nigeria. There are barriers to academic writing which must be identified and addressed. Even after addressing those barriers, authors are faced with another dilemma-where to publish. It was the concern of the authors to evaluate perceived barriers to academic writing and the determinants of journal choice among Nigerian academics. They also attempted to evaluate the determinants of journal choice and perceived barriers to academic writing among Nigerian academicians. Respondents were academicians used in the context of this study to mean anyone involved in academic writing. Such persons must have written and published at least one paper in a peer-reviewed journal in the preceding year to be included in the survey. An online-based self-administered questionnaire. Methods: An online structured and self-administered questionnaire-based cross sectional survey of Nigerian medical academicians was conducted over a period of one year using a Google-powered questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed the determinants of journal choice, perceived barriers to publications, number of publications in the preceding year as a measure of academic productivity and the highest publication fee authors were willing to pay. Results: Of the over 500 email request sent, a total of 200 academicians responded (response rate of 40%). The male and female distribution was 120 and 80 respectively. The highest number of respondents were lecturer 1 and senior lecturers (or junior faculty) (69.5%) however the senior faculty had the higher number of publications in the preceding year. Indexing (35.5%) was the most important determinant of journal choice whilst ease of submission (2.1%) was the least. Unfriendly environment (46%) was the most perceived barrier to publication. Though, majority (88.5%) of the respondents were willing to pay up $300 as publication fees, twice as many junior faculty members (28%) were willing to pay more than $300 as publication fee when compared with professors (12.5%). About 140 of the respondents (70%) were doctors/dentists. Conclusion: In this study, the major determinant of journal choice among Nigerian medics is journal indexing and unfriendly environment appears to be the major perceived barrier to publication. Encouraging a friendly and conducive environment in the universities will impact positively in academic productivity amongst Nigerian faulty members.
- ItemOpen AccessDisparities in caries experience and socio-behavioural risk indicators among private school children in Lagos, Nigeria.(Association of Support to Oral Health Research (APESB), 2020-06-08) Olatosi, O.O.; Oyapero, A.; Onyejaka, N.K.Objective: To determine the prevalence and socio-behavioural risk factors for dental caries among children at selected LGAs in Lagos State. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive study of 592 school children in four Local Government Areas of Lagos, Nigeria. The presence of caries was recorded using the World Health Organization criteria. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, and other socio-demographic variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 16.0% with mean dmft for age 6 being 1.3±1.57 while the mean DMFT for age 12 was 0.15±0.67. The mean Sic for age 6 was 1.5±0.53 while the mean SiC for age 12 was 1.09±0.29. The mean SiC values was significantly higher in the primary and permanent dentition among those who had never visited the dentist, female students, those who don’t use fluoridated toothpaste and those who eat sweets and candy several times a day. After logistic regression analysis, those with no previous dental visit (OR=3.05; CI: 1.72-4.67) and females (OR=1.55; CI: 1.16-1.62) still had significantly higher SiC Values. Conclusion: The prevalence of caries was low in the study population. Being female, non-use of fluoride-containing toothpaste and not visiting the dentist were significant predictors of dental caries among children attending private schools.
- ItemOpen AccessDouble teeth in the primary dentition: case report from a Nigerian tertiary hospital.(Nigerian Dental Association, 2011) Olatosi, O.O.; Sote, E.O.The term double tooth is used to describe the developmental dental abnormalities called gemination and fusion. Gemination is an attempted, incomplete division of a single tooth germ during the proliferation stage of odontogenesis, while fusion is the union of two or more independently developing teeth. Although the prevalence of primary double teeth is low, double teeth are of clinical interests because of the associated clinical problems. The clinical problems associated with the condition in the primary dentition are often downplayed for various reasons in spite of their importance. Primary double teeth ought to be carefully investigated so that these clinical problems which may affect the permanent dentition can be effectively managed. Perhaps primary double teeth have not received adequate documentation in our environment because of the low prevalence. This presents four primary double teeth in three patients. One of the cases presented occurred bilaterally, a relatively uncommon phenomena. The associated clinical problems are illustrated in the cases and the management discussed. Although primary double teeth are asymptomatic and in some cases may not interfere with function, they do have associated clinical problems. Early diagnosis and regular clinical and radiographic observations are necessary for effective management and appropriate treatment of the anomaly.
- ItemOpen AccessEffect of mineral trioxide aggregate and formocresol pulpotomy on vital primary teeth: a clinical and radiographic study.(Wolters Kluwer - Medknow, 2015) Olatosi, O.O.; Sote, E.O.; Orenuga, O.O.Background: Pulpotomy is the common therapy for cariously exposed pulps in symptom‑free primary molar teeth. Formocresol (FC) is considered the gold standard dressing agent for pulpotomy, but concerns have been raised over the years about its safety. Other alternative pulpotomy agents have been investigated and suggested. Objective: The objective was to evaluate and compare the clinical and radiographic response of FC and white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as pulpotomy materials on primary molars. Materials and Methods: Fifty primary molars, with deep carious lesion that exposed a vital but asymptomatic pulp, in 37 children aged 4-7 years were treated with conventional pulpotomy procedure. The teeth were divided randomly into two groups. Group I (FC) and group II (MTA). The treated teeth were evaluated clinically and radiographically and were followed‑up for 12 months. Results: At the end of the 12 months follow‑up, the clinical success rates for FC and MTA were 81% and 100%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.04) between the clinical success rates of FC and MTA. While the radiographic success rates for FC and MTA were 81% and 96%, respectively, there was no statistically significant difference between the radiographic success of MTA and FC. Conclusion: White MTA showed a higher clinical and radiographic success rate when compared to FC as a pulpotomy agent in vital primary molars, and it has a potential to become a replacement for FC in primary molars.
- ItemOpen AccessEmerging trends in dental specialty choice in Nigeria(International Dental Journal, 2013) Nwhator, S.O; Olatosi, O.O; Ashiwaju, M.O; Isiekwe, G.IAsymmetry in the distribution of dental specialists in Nigeria has the potential to negatively affect dental education at all levels. There is a dearth in Nigerian studies on the trends of influencing factors on the choice of dental specialty in Nigeria. Past efforts have not resulted in policy change thus necessitating the current study. One hundred and twelve (51 male, 61 female) Nigerian dental graduates aged 23–55 years with a mean age of 35.21 8.21 years completed selfadministered questionnaires to assess the impact of 16 influencing factors on their choice of dental specialty. The graduation period of respondents, which ranged between 0 and 30 years was recoded into three decades and cross-tabulated against 16 influencing factors to assess their relative impact on specialty choice. Diagnostic challenge, predictable work hours and patient type appeared to have maintained a consistent popularity while affluence and income, although less popular influences three decades ago are becoming increasingly relevant while length of programme, prestige and level of crowding exerted less influence on choice of specialty than other factors. The potential influence of incentives such as career counselling and grants for overseas training to encourage enrolment in less popular programmes was assessed based on recommendations from previous studies. However, these measures appeared to be unpopular among Nigerian dental graduates. Diagnostic challenges and predictable work hours remain popular as influencing factors on choice of dental specialty among Nigerian dental graduates. Affluence and income, although previously unpopular are now gaining popularity among Nigerian dental graduates.
- ItemOpen AccessEvaluation of the Orthodontic Training programme by Residents in Nigeria(West African Journal of Orthodontics, 2015) Isiekwe, G.I; Olurotimi, I; Aikins, E.ABackground: Postgraduate Orthodontic training in Nigeria began over forty years ago at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. The Orthodontic residency program in Nigeria currently runs for five to six years, culminating in the award of a fellowship in orthodontics by either the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria or the West African College of Surgeons Aim and Objectives: To assess the perceptions of orthodontic residents in Nigeria on postgraduate orthodontic training. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study Setting: Annual Scientific Conference of the Nigerian Association of Orthodontists, held in Lagos, Nigeria in October 2014. Subjects and Methods: This study was carried out amongst orthodontic residents attending the conference stated above. Data collection was via self-administered questionnaires. The self-administered questionnaires contained questions assessing different aspects of the residency training program and their future plans. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 19. Results: The response rate was 92.9%, with 26 residents consenting to participate in the study. This represented over 80% of orthodontic residents in the country at that time. About 46% (12) of the respondents reported that the clinical training received was sufficient, while about 27% (7) reported the training as being insufficient. With respect to research based training, 73.1% (19) rated the training received as insufficient, with 19.2% (5) rating it as satisfactory. When asked their future plans, 15.4% (4) desired to engage in a full time career in teaching/research post-graduation, with the rest opting for private practice. Conclusion: Orthodontic residents in Nigeria believe that although sufficient clinical training is currently being received in the residency training, certain aspects of the training, particularly research based training, are still grossly insufficient.