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- ItemOpen AccessAflatoxin Contamination of Arachis hypogaea (Groundnuts) in Lagos Area of Nigeria(Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2003) Thomas A.E.; Coker H.A.B.; Odukoya O.A.; Isamah G.K.; Adepoju-Bello A.Human populations are exposed to aflatoxins as a result of the consumption of commodities particularly grams and nuts) that have been directly contaminated by the aflatoxin producing strains of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergilus parasiticus during growth, harvest or storage (Busby and Wogan 1984). The occurrence and magnitude of aflatoxins contamination varies also with geographical and seasonal factors. Crops in tropical and subtropical areas are more susceptible to contamination than those in temperate regions, since optimal conditions for toxin formation are prevalent in areas with high humidity and temperature (Diener and Davis 1969). Grains and food stuffs capable of being contaminated with aflatoxins have been reported by Busby and Wogan and the level of contamination can vary from less than lppb to over 12ppb. In Nigeria, grains like groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea) have become a staple food among the populace and there is need to consider the sporadic nature of the infestation of these nuts. In this study, the level of aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts (roasted, steamed and raw), was evaluated, using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatographic methods.
- ItemOpen AccessAfrican Women Scientists' COVID-Related Experiences: Reflecting on the Challenges and Suggesting Ways Forward(Michigan State University Press, Alliance for African Partnership Perspectives, Volume 1, 2021: African Universities and the COVID-19 Pandemic, pp. 89-100 (Article), 2021) Babalola, O.O; Alaribe, S.C.; Olatunji, O.A.; Bigambo, P.N; Babalola, S.S.; Amoo, A.E.; Kutu, M.O.; Katoti, I.; Mufhandu, H.T.; Imarfidor, H.O.The COVID-19 pandemic has intensified the traditional gender power inequalities faced by women daily and has left humanity sad and overwhelmed with fear. Before our very eyes, most countries are confused and frequently shutting down outdoor activities such as schools, colleges, universities, places of worship, and markets, leaving people with no choice but to work from home. The situation has particularly adversely affected the Women Scientists at the forefront of discoveries and innovations through science. This article reveals the experiences and challenges faced by Women Scientists due to the pandemic outbreak, more especially burdened with additional roles of taking care of others besides themselves. Furthermore, the work reflects how African women can be encouraged to enter and remain in their scientific careers. African female scientists make up approximately 31 percent of researchers on the continent. They, therefore, have critical roles in Africa's development. The review suggests various ways in which African governments, international organizations, African universities, and communities could develop programs and initiatives to address multiple issues raised so that women could pursue careers in the sciences—and remain in these careers to advance development on the continent.
- ItemOpen AccessAmeliorative influence of atorvastatin in transgenic Drosophila Melanogaster model of neurodegenerative diseases(Pharmaceutical Society of Nigeria, 2021-03-31) Ishola, I.O.; Badru, W.A.; Ofi, E.O.; Akinleye, M.O.; Adeyemi, O.O.Background: The common features in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) (two most common neurodegenerative diseases) are chronic and progressive aggregation and accumulation of misfolded proteins (amyloid-beta and tau proteins in AD as well as α-synuclein in PD) leading to the destruction of vulnerable neurons and synaptic connections and ultimately neuronal cell death brain mass loss. Despite our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms implicated in AD and PD pathogenesis and primary target of therapeutic intervention being the misfolded protein aggregates, no efficient treatments are available. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila), is a valuable model organism for neurodegenerative disease owing to its short lifespan and plethora of genetic tools for exquisite targeted manipulation of the genome. Thus, in this study the protective action of atorvastatin on genetic model of AD and PD in mice. Methods: To model PD and AD in Drosophila, the bipartite system of GAL4 transcriptional activator was placed under a cell-type specific promoter; embryonic lethal abnormal visual systemGAL4 (ELAV-GAL4) or dopa decarboxylase (Ddc-GAL4) for expression of amyloid-beta (Aβ42) or α-synuclein, respectively, under the control of the upstream activating sequence (UAS) in Drosophila. The flies were was either maintained on media supplemented with vehicle or atorvastatin (85, 170 or 340µM; HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor – antihyperlipidemic drug). The effect of treatments on larva motility, climbing activity, fecundity and lifespan were recorded. Results: Supplementation of fly media with different concentration of atorvastatin ameliorated the deficits in larva motility and climbing activity. Moreover, supplementation of fly media with atorvastatin prolonged the survival of drosophila but atorvastatin (384µM) reduced fecundity. Conclusion: Findings from this study showed that atorvastatin improved spontaneous motor activity and prolonged lifespan in Drosophila possibly through reduction of misfolded protein aggregates
- ItemOpen AccessAmeliorative influence of vildagliptin on genetic model of neurodegenerative diseases in Drosophila melanogaster(Pharmaceutical Society of Nigeria, 2021-09-30) Ishola, I.O.; Afolayan, O.; Akinleye, M.O.; Nwajei, W.I.; Adeyemi, O.O.; Mishra, R.K.Background: Neurodegenerative disorders (ND) are characterized by progressive loss of selectively vulnerable populations of neurons, which contrasts with select static neuronal loss. Self-association of amyloid-beta (Aβ) or α-synuclein peptides into fibrils and/or plaque like aggregates causes neurotoxicity. Hence, identification of specific compounds that either inhibit the formation of Aβ or α syn-fibrils makes an appealing therapeutic strategy in the development of drugs. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of vildagliptin (VDG) (oral hypoglycemic agent) on genetic models of ND in Drosophila melanogaster. Methods: The disease causing human Aβ42 peptide or α-syn was expressed pan-neuronally (elav GAL4) or dopamine neurons (DDC-GAL4) using the UAS-GAL4 system. Flies were either grown in food media with or without vildagliptin (1, 5, or 10µM). This was followed by fecundity, larva motility and negative geotaxis assay (climbing) as a measure of neurodegeneration. Results: Elav-Gal4
- ItemOpen AccessAnalysis of Fifteen Brands of Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride tablets obtained from Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.(The Nigeria Journal of Pharmacy, 2010) Adepoju-Bello A.A.; Ayoola G.A.; Coker H.A.B.The importance of ciprofloxacin especially in the third world countries can be estimated by the high success rate recorded in some high morbidity and mortality ailments. It is then necessary that the various brands of ciprofloxacin in the market must contain the adequate amount of active ingredient as specified in the official pharmacopoeias. A well formulated dosage form of ciprofloxacin ensures that adequate amount of the active constituent of the drug is delivered to the recipient to produce the desired pharmacological response. A substandard formulated dosage form of ciprofloxacin will not produce the desired pharmacological response. This research was carried out to evaluate the physical qualities and percentage purities of some brands of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in the Nigerian market. The British Pharmacopoeia (B.P) and United States Pharmacopoeia (U.S.P) methods were adopted for the physicochemical tests -weight uniformity, disintegration, friability and dissolution tests. Ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometric calibration plot method was developed for the quantitative assay. The concentration of each brand was derived from the regression equation obtained from the calibration plot. The results obtained showed that 100% of the brands conformed to the physicochemical compendia standards. According to the U.S.P. specification (90-110%), 73.33% of the brands analysed passed the quantitative assay, 26.67% failed (6.67% were below the U .S.P. range and 20.00% were above the range). Conformity of drugs to compendia requirements is very crucial to ensure that the adequate amount of drug required to elicit their pharmacological effect gets to its site of action. Lack of regular electricity supply is affecting the proper storage of drugs resulting in fast decomposition of drugs before the expiry date. Therefore, a regular analysis of drugs is necessary to ensure the administration of quality drugs for effective treatment with the desired result. All the brands analysed passed the physicochemical assay according to the compendia requirement but only 73.33% of the brands passed the quantitative assay, 26.67% failed (6.67% were below the U.S.P. range and 20.00% were above the range). Researchers should continue to carry out physicochemical tests and quantitative assay regularly on drugs manufactured within the country and those imported into the country to ensure that all drugs circulating in the country at any point in time conform to the compendia requirements.
- ItemOpen AccessAnalysis of Organochlorine pesticide residues in beans(West African Journal of Pharmacy, 2012) Ogah C.O.; Coker H.B.; Adepoju-Bello A.A.Background: Analysis of pesticide residues in food is one way to determine the level of human exposure to these chemicals and hence their potential human health hazards. Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the incidence and quantity of organochlorine pesticide residues in beans samples collected from various markets in Lagos State and compare values obtained withestablished safety values. Methods: Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) samples purchased from different markets in Lagos State were analyzedfor residues of organochlorine pesticides using gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric detector (GC-MS)after careful extraction and cleanup. Results: The results showed that all the beans samples contained residues of one or more organochlorine pesticides. Mean concentrations ranged from 5.8-35.1μg/kg and maximum residue limits (MRLs) of some pesticides were exceeded in up to 8% of samples. The estimated total diet intakes (ETDIs) for aldrin and dieldrinexceeded their maximum permissible intakes (MPIs) by 100% and 17% respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that residues of organochlorine pesticides are present in beans in Lagos markets andsome are above safety levels.
- ItemOpen AccessAnalysis of selected metallic impurities in soft drinks marketed in Lagos, Nigeria(African Journal of Biotechnology, 2012) Adepoju-Bello A.A.; Oguntibeju O.O.; Onuegbu M.T.; Ayoola G.A.; Coker H.A.B.Twenty brands of soft drinks commonly consumed in Lagos, Nigeria were analyzed for lead, cadmium, nickel, silver, chromium and zinc using standard biochemical procedures. The aim was to determine whether the concentrations of toxic metals in commonly consumed soft drinks are below or above the upper limit for each of the metals as set by World Health Organization (WHO). Results showed that cadmium was present in four of the samples at a concentration ranging from 0.023 to 0.158 mg/L, lead was present in three of the samples at a concentration ranging from 0.5045 to 3.0275 mg/L, nickel was present in six of the samples at a concentration ranging from 0.016 to 0.063 mg/L while silver was absent in all of the samples. Some of the samples analyzed can be said to be safe for human consumption because the values of the metals were below the allowable limits as set by WHO while others could not be said to be safe as the levels of metals were above the allowable limits set by WHO. Therefore, it is suggested that health authorities and soft drink producing companies should pay more attention to the sources of these metals in soft drinks.
- ItemOpen AccessAnalysis of some selected toxic metals and pesticide residues in ofada rice (oryza sativa l.) samples produced in south western region of Nigeria.(Journal of Industrial Research and Technology, 2019) Adepoju-Bello A.A.; Oyawaluja B.O.; Sosanya D.G.Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important cereal crop in the developing world and is the staple food of over half the world's population. It is generally considered a semi-aquatic annual grass plant. About 20 species of the genus are recognized, but nearly all cultivated rice is O. sativa L. thus the need to evaluate the toxic metal and pesticide content. This study aim to determine the concentration of heavy metals and pesticide residues in ofada rice samples obtained from major markets in 10 local governments in Lagos state, Nigeria. The rice samples were digested using concentrated nitric acid and the digested samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The extractions of the pesticides from the rice samples were done using QuEChERS method of extraction. Fifteen types of pesticides were analyzed using the GC-MS. The result showed that all the metals were present in the rice samples. The concentration of lead in each sample ranged from 0.054-0.139μg/g, Copper 1.265-27.652μg/g, Arsenic 0.080-0.207μg/g, Mercury 0.039-0.093μg/g, and Cadmium 0.255-0.650μg/g. The Oral Component Limit for lead, copper, arsenic, mercury and cadmium as stated by the USP are 1 μg/g, 250 μg/g, 1.5 μg/g, 1.5 μg/g, 0.5 μg/g respectively. All the metals except cadmium in 3 samples have concentrations below the USP. The rice sample had no detectable amount of pesticide residue as the concentrations are below detection limit. All the samples contained detectable amount of the metal of interest suggesting significant risk to consumers considering the toxicity and half-lives of heavy metals. Keywords: Ofada, heavy metals, pesticides, Lagos, spectrophotometer, GCMS
- ItemRestrictedAnalysis of some selected toxic metals in registered herbal products manufactured in Nigeria(African Journal of Biotechnology, 2012) Adepoju-Bello A.A.; Issa O.A.; Oguntibeju O.O.; Ayoola G.A.; Adejumo O.O.The use of herbal medicine has been on the increase in many developing and industrialized countries and Nigerians in particular has been using herbal medicine or many centuries. The approval of these herbal remedies by regulatory bodies has further encouraged the use of herbal remedies. The safety of these herbal remedies is however poorly understood. This study investigated the concentration of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in twenty registered ready to use herbal products. Twenty brands of herbal remedies were purchased randomly from the Pharmacy shops in Lagos, digested with aquaregia (3:1 HCl: HNO3) and were analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (Buck 205 AtomicAbsorption Spectrophotometer). There was no detectable lead in any of the 20 herbal samples; however, all the samples contained a detectable amount of one or more of the other metals of interest. The Oral Component Limit (OCL) for arsenic, cadmium and mercury as stated by USP are 1.5, 0.5 and 1.5 μg/g, respectively. All the samples contained arsenic and mercury below the USP OCL, while sixtyfive percent contained cadmium out of which fifty-five percent were above USP OCL. The results obtained from this study suggest a significant risk to consumers’ health considering the toxicity of these heavy metals.
- ItemOpen AccessAntibiotic use in food animals: determination of enrofloxacin residue in chicken tissue(West African Postgraduate College of Pharmacists, 2017) AMAGON, K.I; OLAYEMI, S.O; Akinleye, M.O.; AWODELE, O; SILVA, B.OBackground: Poultry farmers in Nigeria employ the use of various antibiotics with or without the guidance of veterinarians, to promote growth and prevent infections in poultry. Although antibiotics benefit most of its uses, this has led to the accumulation of toxic antibiotic residues in edible poultry products destined for human consumption. Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the residual amounts of enrofloxacin in chicken muscle samples. Method: Forty birds were obtained from commercial poultries in Lagos State and randomly allotted into 7 groups. They were humanely sacrificed, dissected and 10.0 g of muscle tissue was sectioned from each drumstick and homogenized in a porcelain mortar. 5.0 g of the homogenate was weighed and transferred into a 5 ml plain sample bottle and processed for analysis by high performance liquid chromatography to determine the amount of enrofloxacin in the tissues. Results: Enrofloxacin was detected in all samples from the four farms. The mean concentration of enrofloxacin ranged from 23.5 to 88.1 μg/g in all the 7 samples analyzed; these values were higher than the maximum residue level of 0.1 ìg/ug in Europe and 0.3 ìg/ug in the United States of America. Conclusion: This study confirmed misuse of enrofloxacin in poultry farms and emphasizes the need for stricter regulation regarding antibiotic use in poultry as well as the screening of chicken for residues before sale.
- ItemOpen AccessAnticancer potential of metabolic compounds from marine actinomycetes isolated from Lagos Lagoon sediment(Science direct, 2019-06) Davies-Bolorunduro, O.F.; Adeleye, I.A.; Akinleye, M.O.; Wang, G.P.Thirty-two actinomycetes strains were isolated from sediment samples from 12 different sites at Lagos Lagoon and identified using standard physiological and biochemical procedures as well as 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Secondary metabolites were extracted from the strains and their anticancer activity on the K562 (Human acute myelocytic leukemia), HeLa (cervical carcinoma), AGS (Human gastric), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma) and HL-60 (Human acute promyelocytic leukemia) cell lines was determined. The metabolic extracts exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 0.030 mg/mL to 4.4 mg/mL. The Streptomyces bingchenggensis ULS14 extract was cytotoxic against all the cell lines tested. The bioactivity-guided extraction and purification of the metabolic extracts from this strain yielded two purified anticancer compounds: ULDF4 and ULDF5. The structures of the extracted compounds were determined using spectroscopic analyses, including electrospray ionization mass spectrophotometer and nuclear magnetic resonance (1 Dimensional and 2 Dimensional), and were shown to be structurally similar to staurosporine and kigamicin. The IC50 of ULDF4 and ULDF5 against the HeLa cell line was 0.034 μg/mL and 0.075 μg/mL, respectively. This study is the first to reveal the anticancer potential of actinomycetes from Lagos Lagoon, which could be exploited for therapeutic purposes.
- ItemOpen AccessAntidepressant Effect of Cnestis ferruginea Vahl ex DC (Connaraceae): Involvement of Cholinergic, Monoaminergic and L-arginine-nitric Oxide Pathways(Georg Thieme Verlig KG, 2016) Owope, T.E.; Ishola, I.O.; Akinleye, M.O.; Oyebade, R.; Adeyemi, O.O.Background: We have previously reported antidepressant effect of Cnestis ferruginea (CF) in behavioral models of depression. Due to the promise shown by this extract, this study was carried out to investigate the contribution of monoaminergic, cholinergic and nitrergic systems to the antidepressant-like effect elicited by CF. Methods: Male albino mice were pretreated with monoaminergic or cholinergic receptor antagonists, L-arginine or NG-nitro-L-arginine (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) (at doses reported to block the in vivo effect of the agonists), 15 min before oral administration of CF (100 mg/kg), 1 h later, the forced swim test (FST) in mice was carried out. Results: CF treatment produced significant changes in the duration of swimming (F(5,42)=9.86, P<0.001), climbing behaviour (F(5,42)=4.51, P=0.004) and mean time spent immobile (F(5,42)=11.55, P<0.001) vs. vehicle-treated control. Co-administration of CF with fluoxetine or imipramine potentiated their effect. However, pretreatment of mice with reserpine (F(1,16)=119.20, P<0.001), prazosin (F(1,16)=68.98, P<0.001), sulpiride (F(1,16)=15.46, P<0.01), RS 127445 ((F(1,20)=8.22, P<0.01), SB 399885 ((F(1,20)=38.44, P<0.001), atropine (F(1,16)=53.77, P<0.001), or L-arginine (nitric oxide precursor) (F(1,16)=10.35, P<0.01) prevented CF-induced antidepressant-like effect in mice. In addition, pretreatment of mice with L-NNA (10 mg/kg) augmented the effect of CF. Conclusion: C. ferruginea exerts its antidepressant-like action through interaction with α-adrenoceptor, dopamine D2, 5-HT2B, 5-HT6 and muscarinic cholinergi1c receptors as well as L-arginine-nitric oxide systems. C. ferruginea could be used as adjuvant with conventional antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder.
- ItemOpen AccessAntidepressant-like effect of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) in mice: Involvement of monoaminergic system(Elsevier, 2014-12-02) Akinleye, M.O.; Ishola, I.O.; Agbaje, E.O.; Ibeh, C.O.; Adeyemi, O.O.Ethnopharmacological relevance The leaf of Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae) is used in traditional African medicine in the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders including depression. Previous studies have shown its potent antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test (FST). Hence, this study sought to investigate the involvement of monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like effect elicited by hydroethanolic leaf extract of Alchornea cordifolia (HeAC) in the FST. Materials and methods HeAC (25–400 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered 1 h before the FST. To investigate the contribution of monoaminergic systems to antidepressant-like effect, receptors antagonists were injected 15 min before oral administration of HeAC (200 mg/kg) to mice and 1 h thereafter, subjected to FST. Results HeAC (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose dependent and significant (P<0.001) antidepressant-like effect, in the FST, without accompanying changes in spontaneous locomotor activities in the open-field test. The anti-immobility effect of HeAC (200 mg/kg) in the FST was prevented by pretreatment of mice with SCH 23390 (0.05 mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist), sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist), prazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p., an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), and GR 127993 (5-HT1B receptor antagonist). Similarly, 3 days intraperitoneal injection of p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA, 150 mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) prevented the antidepressant-like effect elicited by HeAC. The combination of subeffective doses of imipramine (5 mg/kg, p.o.) or fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, p.o.), with HeAC (25 mg/kg, p.o., subeffective dose) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the FST. Conclusion The hydroethanolic extract of Alchornea cordifolia possesses antidepressant-like effect mediated through interaction with dopamine (D1 and D2), noradrenergic (α1 and α2 adrenoceptors), and serotonergic (5HT1B receptors) systems. Also, the potentiation of the anti-immobility effect of conventional antidepressants (fluoxetine and imipramine) by Alchornea cordifolia suggest potential therapeutic effect in depression.
- ItemOpen AccessAntimicrobial Evaluation of the Leaf Extract of Euphorbia milii.var splendens(Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsuka, 2020) Ogah, C.; Igbokwe, N.; Owolabi, M.; Alabi, F.Plant-based medicines have become popular due to their low toxicity both to man and environment. In Nigeria, the leaves of Euphorbia milii are used in the treatment of variety of diseases, including microbial infections. This study screened ethanol and aqueous extracts of E. milii leaves for phytochemical constituents and evaluated their activity in vitro, against selected microorganisms. The leaves of E. milii were collected, washed, air dried and subsequently ground into coarse powder. The powder was extracted by cold maceration in ethanol and sterile distilled water to obtain the ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. Similarly, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of the plant was prepared by cold maceration in sterile distilled water. Phytochemical study was carried out and antimicrobial activity tests were done using agar well diffusion method. Levofloxacin and Bifonazole were used as reference antibacterial and antifungal drugs, respectively. Results showed that both ethanol and aqueous extracts contained an array of phytochemicals. The ethanol dry leaf extract was active against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis while the aqueous dry leaf extract was active only against Bacillus subtilis. Aqueous fresh leaf extract was not active against any of the bacterial test organisms. None of the three extracts inhibited the growth of the fungal organisms (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichophyton rubrum and Mycobacterium globose) used in the study. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the ethanol dry leaf extract was 50 and 75 mg/mL for S. aureus and B. subtilis, respectively.
- ItemOpen AccessAntinociceptive and anti-arthritic effects of aqueous whole plant extract of Trianthema portulacastrum in rodents: Possible mechanisms of action(ELSEVIER, 2019-03-28) FALADE, T; ISHOLA, I.O; AKINLEYE, M.O; OLADIMEJI-SALAMI, J.A; ADEYEMI, O.OEthnopharmacological relevance: Trianthema portulacastrum L. (Aizoaceae) is used in traditional African Medicine for the treatment of various illnesses including dropsy, inflammation and rheumatism. Aim of the study: This study was designed to investigate the anti-nociceptive and anti-arthritic properties of the aqueous whole plant extract of Trianthema portulacastrum (AETP), possible mechanisms of action and characterize some of the active constituents. Materials and methods: Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests in mice. The carrageenan test was used to induce a transient inflammation while arthritis was induced with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) in rats. On completion of CFA-induced arthritis macroscopic observations, the rats were euthanized to isolate the spleen, liver and limbs for estimation of oxidative stress and histological analysis. Results: AETP (10, 50, or 250 mg/kg; p.o.) produced significant (p < 0.05) and dose-dependent inhibition (41.10, 50.40, and 67.10%, respectively) of writhing response elicited by acetic acid. Also, increased pain threshold of supraspinally mediated nociceptive behaviour, with peak maximum possible effect (MPE) obtained at 250 mg/kg (22.98%; 30 min post-treatment). However, the pre-treatment of mice with Nitro-L-arginine (LNNA) or naloxone reversed AETP-induced antinociception. In another experiment, AETP produced time course inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw oedema with peak effect (50.60%) at 250 mg/kg as well as significant reduction in CFA-induced arthritis by 58.56%, on day 27 and arthritic index (26.84%). Similarly, AETP attenuated CFA-induced MDA generation and deficit in antioxidant enzyme activities. Histological analysis of rat joints revealed a reduction in the synovial hyperplasia and mononuclear infiltration induced by CFA in AETP treated groups. Conclusion: Findings from this study showed that T. portulacastrum possesses anti-nociceptive action through nitrergic and opioidergic signalling as well as anti-arthritic effect through enhancement of antioxidant defense system and inhibition of release or actions of inflammatory mediators.
- ItemOpen AccessAntioxidant and Hypoglycaemic activities of the Ethanol extract of Senecio Biafrae leaves.(Chemical Society of Nigeria, 2017) G. A. Ayoola, O. O. Johnson, D. K. Adeyemi, O. M. Lapite, C. O. DohertyDiabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, it has been characterized by increased levels of oxidative stress and hyperglycaemia which are implicated in the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the antioxidant and hypoglycaemic effect of the ethanol leaf extract of Senecio biafrae Oliv & Hiern Compositae, using DPPH and alpha amylase inhibition methods respectively. S. biafrae is known for its therapeutic virtues, notably in Nigeria where it is used in the treatment of diabetes or pulmonary defects. The plant extract displayed appreciable level of antioxidant activities by standard assay methods: The DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay showed percentage inhibition range from 44.26±0.069% – 49.96±0.075% for Senecio biafrae leaf extract, 95.83±0.023% – 98.88±0.002% for ascorbic acid (standard) and 54.63±0.038% –58.99±0.033% for alpha-tocopherol (standard), with IC 50 136.95 µg/ml, 6.65 µg/ml and 17.14 µg/ml respectively at concentration ranging from 20 to 100 µg/ml. The Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) of the extract was 147.3 μM Fe 2+/g dry extract while the positive control ascorbic acid had a value of 265.4 μMFe 2+/g dry material. The hypoglycaemic activity using α-amylase inhibition assay revealed inhibition from 21.78±0.002% - 74.67±0.0003% for Senecio biafrae leaf extract and 6.6±0.026% – 48.89±0.00% for acarbose (standard drug), with IC50 86.20 µg/ml and 513.5 µg/ml respectively at concentration ranging from 20-500 µg/ml. Therefore, the results indicated that the extract of Senecio biafrae possess significant antidiabetics and in-vitro antioxidant activities.
- ItemOpen AccessAntioxidant, antimicrobial and hypoglycaemic activities of the ethanol root extract of Olax subscorpioidea Oliv (Olacaceae)(West African Journal of Pharmacy, 2018) Ayoola G.A.; Adeoye w.; Olowu T.; Adepoju-Bello A.A.; Usman A.; Johnson O.Background: Olax subscorpioidea(OS) is a shrub or tree that is widely distributed Africa. It is used in traditional medicine for the management inflammatory disorders, infectious diseases,diabetes mellitus and mental illness. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, hypoglycemic and antimicrobial properties of the ethanol root extract of Olax subscorpioidea(EOS). Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined spectrophotometrically using DPPH) free radical inhibition and ferric reducing power assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined. The hypoglycemic potential was assessed by investigating the in vitro inhibitory effect of the extract on á-amylase. The plant was also screened against some gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), two Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and a fungus, Candida albican susing agar well diffusion method. Results: EOS exhibited moderate radical scavenging activity against DPPH radical with an IC of 3.29 mg/mL 50 compared to an IC value of 0.017 and 0.019 mg/mL for Vitamin C and E respectively. The ferric reducing power 50 was 114.74 M and 253.6 M Fe(II)/mg for EOS and Vitamin C respectively. The á-amylase inhibitory result showed that EOS was twice as potent as acarbose. IC values of 186.6 and 391.7μg/mL were recorded for EOS 50 and acarbose respectively. Antimicrobial screening showed that EOS was active against gram positive and not gram negative bacteria with a zone of inhibition range of 14 -18 mm and also inhibited Candida albicanat higher concentrations (75 & 150 ìg/ml) with a zone of inhibition range of 14 -16 mm. Conclusion: The results showed that Olax subscorpioidea possesses moderate free radical scavenging activity and potent hypoglycemic and antimicrobial (narrow spectrum)
- ItemOpen AccessAssay of Dosage Forms of Amodiaquine.(J. Pharmaceut. Sci. & Pharm. Prac., 1997) Adepoju-Bello A.A.; Ayim J.S.K.A search through the literature of Amodiaquine has been done as well as a survey of methods of its assay. UV/Visible spectrophotometric method is used for the assay of dosage forms of Amodiaquine using A (1%, 1 cm) at wavelength of absorption 342 nm. For high accuracy the differences in the absorbance of the standard and test solution must not exceed 10%. This method was used as a standard method using A (1%, 1cm), 1 x 1 assay and calibration curve methods at wavelength of absorption 342 nm. It gave good reproducible and reliable results for all the dosage forms. The gravimetric method was also used for the assay of the dosage forms of amodiaquine but the results were not reproducible and hence not reliable. A potentiometric/lndicator direct titration method was developed and was used for amodiaquine tablet using water as the solvent, phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein as indicator and 0.2M sodium hydroxide as titrant. This method gave a reproducible and reliable result, also, the method is simple, precise and no sophisticated instrument is required. For the syrup dosage form the potentiometric titration method does not give a reliable result because the excipients appear to affect the method.
- ItemOpen AccessAssessment level of physicochemical properties and trace metals of water samples from Lagos, Nigeria.(International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences, 2015) Chinedu, S.N.; Nwinyi, O; Oluwadamisi, A. Y.; Eze, V. N.Water quality assessment largely depends on the physicochemical parameters as well as organic and inorganic compounds that are dissolved or suspended in it. Current study investigates the physico-chemical parameters of borehole and Lagos lagoon water samples, as well as mean concentrations of trace metals (Fe, Ni, Cr, Zn and Cu) in commercial sachet and bottled water samples. Prior to analysis with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, samples were digested by aqua-regia technique. The pH values ranges from 7.30-8.5 for lagoon and borehole water samples and 6.30-7.35 for sachet and bottled water samples, other physicochemical parameters ranges are: Dissolved oxygen (bottled > bore hole > sachet > Lagos lagoon); Alkalinity (Lagos lagoon>borehole>bottled>sachet water),Electrical conductivity (Lagos lagoon>sachet>bottled>borehole) and salinity (Lagos lagoon > borehole>bottled>sachet). Also, Total dissolved solids were in the order: Lagos lagoon>borehole>sachet>bottled water. The occurrence of trace metals include Fe>Cu>Zn>Cr>Ni and while Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu were detected in all the samples, Cr was detected in 70 and 10% of bottled and sachet water samples respectively. Mean concentrations of the trace metals were generally lower in sachet than in bottled water samples. All the measured parameters except mean concentration of Fe and Ni were below the maximum allowable limit set by World Health Organization
- ItemOpen AccessCATIONIC DENDRIPLEXES FOR GENE THERAPY REQUIRES AT LEAST 5h TO EQUILIBRATE(Academic Sciences, 2012-03-23) Akinleye, M.O.; Uchegbu, I.F.; Coker, H.A.B.; Schatzlein, A.G.The task of developing a non-viral vector system for efficient delivery of drugs and genes has been a major concern to molecular scientists. Several efforts at formulating DNA-polycation complexes that show relatively consistent particle size and shape has not yielded perfect outcome. Some of these formulation variables can be exploited for optimum achievement towards development of DNA-polmer complexes of required nanosize. The objective of the study was to investigate the hydrodynamic size and zeta potential of complexes by dynamic light and electrophoretic light scattering with a view to formulating DNA/DAB complexes of consistent particle size and shape. Stock solutions of DAB16 (1 & 10 mgmL-1) and DNA (Calf thymus) [1 & 10 mgmL-1] concentrations were prepared in 5% dextrose solution and deionised water respectively. DNA-Dendrimer Complexes (DNA/DAB16) were formulated based on a nitrogen to phosphate (N:P) ratio. Samples were characterized using a Zeta sizer 3000 HAS for hydrodynamic size; surface zeta potentials and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) for imaging. Evidence showed that a N:P ratio in excess of 8 and/ or a DNA concentration in excess of 250µg/ml lead to non-colloidal complexes. It was also demonstrated that higher levels of dendrimer to dendriplex lead to a diminished dendriplex surface charge. The results also confirmed that as the binding time of Dendriplexes increases, the particle size of the complexes decreases while the zeta potential increases. It can be concluded based on our results that a period of between 5 and 8 hour could be appropriate for dendriplex binding that will give a relatively consistent particle size and shape for efficient DNA delivery