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- ItemOpen AccessAirborne pollen records of Shomolu local government area in Lagos State(AcademicPres, 2014-12-08) Adeniyi, Tiwalade A.; Adeonipekun, Peter A.; Olowokudejo, James D.; Akande, Idowu S.Data on the prevalence of pollen in the atmosphere is limited and almost non-existent for Lagos State and Nigeria. Pollen grains are known to be highly allergenic and thus they are potential causes of respiratory diseases. To investigate airborne incidence of pollen, so as to construct a pollen calendar and contribute to current trends in the development of aeropalynology/allergy study in Nigeria, three highly populated locations in Shomolu Local Government areas of Lagos State: University of Lagos, Bariga and Gbagada, were sampled. Aero-samplers were harvested monthly from January 2013 to December 2013. After acetolysis treatment and analysis, the total pollen count was 4393, belonging to 38 pollen taxa and 29 families. The main taxa include Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Amaranthaceae, Ludwigia and Alchornea. Monthly pollen counts were highest in October and lowest in June. Almost three-quarters of the total pollen content came from grasses and weeds. This composition reflects the ornamental and grassland flora of the town, as well as the natural vegetation surrounding the urban area. The total pollen concentration correlates positively with the temperature and negatively with the wind, rainfall and relative humidity, which was similar in the dominant taxa Amaranthaceae and Alchornea. Dominant taxa Cyperaceae and Ludwigia have significant positive correlation with wheezing cough. Results from this work will form the basis for a forecast service required to inform and educate the general public and allergy sufferers about pollen distribution in Lagos State.
- ItemOpen AccessAnalyses of antisickling potency of Carica papaya dried leaf extract and fractions(Academic Journals, 2010-11) Imaga, Ngozi Awa; Adepoju, Olusegun A.Carica papaya dried leaves have been indicated in sickle cell anemia management by local indigenous folk and in recent scientific research. In this research, dried C. papaya leaves were extracted using the soxhlet extraction method with 5 different solvents to give five different fractions namely hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. This research examined the crude extract and the various leaf extract fractions of C. papaya L. (Caricaceae) for possible in vitro antisickling activities on Hbss red blood cells obtained from non-crisis state sickle cell patients involving the use of positive (phydroxybenzoic acid 5 mg /ml) and negative (normal saline) controls for the antisickling experiments. Pretreatment of SS cell suspensions with C. papaya leaf extract and fractions all inhibited formation of sickle cells under severe hypoxia at varying degrees, with only 0 - 5% sickle cells in the crude extract at 60 min compared with untreated SS cell suspensions which had over 80% sickle cells. Analysis of two different concentrations of C. papaya crude extract (10 and 5 mg/ml) showed the 10 mg/ml extract as the concentration with highest antisickling effect. Butanol extract showed the highest antisickling activity at 10 mg/ml concentration, while the ethyl acetate extract had the highest antisickling activity at 5 mg/ml concentration. These results further indicate the possibility of C. papaya leaf extract as potential phytotherapy for sickle cell anemia.
- ItemOpen AccessANALYSES OF THE EFFECTS OF SWEDISH BITTERS ON SELECTED METABOLIC PROFILES(Moksha Publishing House, 2013) Imaga, Ngozi Awa; Valentine, Oluwaseun JamesSwedish Bitters® is a traditional herbal tonic that has detoxification potential and has been claimed to contribute to weight loss and normal functioning of body organs. In this study Swedish Bitters was analyzed for its phytochemical, proximate and antioxidant constituents as well as a measurement of the effects of daily administration of 3.5 ml of the extract to rats for three weeks on tissues and organs of rats in vivo. The presence of Phenol and Tannins at levels of 418.61 and 817.27 μg GAE / mg respectively were obtained. The antioxidant assay of the extract showed that it had its highest level of DPPH radical scavenging activity (22.6 %) at 100 % and total reducing antioxidant power was highest (0.87) at 25 %. The proximate analysis of the extract showed that the moisture content was the highest at 80 %. There was a noted reduction in blood cholesterol levels and an increase in the level of triglycerides relative to the control. The antioxidant enzyme assays which were carried out on the sera of the rats showed that there was a reduction in the levels of SOD and CAT in the test group compared to the control. There was also a slight decrease in the level of GSH in the test group compared to the control, while the level of MDA in the test group increased when compared with the control which suggests increased levels of lipid peroxidation. However these results were not statistically significant. The results obtained from the liver function tests did not suggest any form of damage caused by the administration. There was also no statistical difference in the blood glucose levels of the treated rats relative to the control. From the study, it can be concluded that short-term administration of Swedish bitters had no marked end-organ damage, but rather helped reduce the level of cholesterol in vivo.
- ItemOpen AccessAnthropometric, Socio-demographic and biochemical risk factors of hypertension in Lagos, Nigeria(Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group, 2021-01-20) EBUEHI, O.A.T.Background: Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and all cause death globally and in Africa. The prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria is 28.9%. In Nigeria, analytical studies to determine risk factors and potential biomarkers of hypertension are lacking. This study was conducted to determine lifestyle, anthropometric, socio demographic, and biochemical risk factors associated with hypertension in Lagos, Nigeria. Method: This case–control study was conducted among 410 participants, aged 18–65 years. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from cases and controls. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken. Blood samples were also collected for biochemical analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors associated with hypertension. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 25.0. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: In total, 205 hypertensive cases and 205 normotensive controls were recruited. The mean ± SD age of the participants was 39.25 ± 11.49 years. Overall, 180 (44%) of participants were female. Logistic regression analysis indicated that obesity (OR = 3.324, 95% CI = 1.693–6.527, P= 0.000), family history (OR = 2.861, 95% CI = 1.731–4.729, P= 0.000), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 2.940, 95% CI = 1.577–5.480, P= 0.001), insufficient fruits and vegetables intake (OR = 0.152, 95% CI = 0.085–0.273, P= 0.000), frequent intake of dietary salt (OR = 0.400, 95% CI = 0.198–0.810, P= 0.011), and smoking status (OR = 3.709, 95% CI = 1.061–12.964, P= 0.040) were significantly associated with hypertension. Conclusion: Population-based approaches to reduce exposure to hypertension risk factors are required for effective prevention and control of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Lagos, Nigeria.
- ItemOpen AccessANTI-PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM WHOLE PLANT ON SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE(Journal of Industrial Research and Technology, 2016) Lawal, R.A.; Onawola, O.O.; Agunbiade, O.T.; Adefisan, I.O.; Badmus, I.A.; Ebuehi, O.A.T.Plants derived natural products are the source of most active components of medications, which in turn play a significant role in the treatment or prevention of human illnesses. Tropical plants have been investigated intensively during the last decades in order to evaluate the possibility of developing new, sustainable, natural and affordable drugs that can play a significant role in the treatment or prevention of human illnesses. Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken, is an erect, succulent, perennial shrub that has been reported to have a lot of medicinal properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-tumor. The aim of this study was to determine the anti¬ proliferative potential of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) model. The concentration range tested (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, lOmg/ml), for the aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum exhibited strong anti-proliferative activity with a percentage inhibition of 73.12% at lOmg/ml following 24 hours of incubation. This value was compared to value obtained from the percentage inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the control drug, Methotrexate at 125pg/ml(86.7%). Thefindings suggest that aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum has high anti-proliferative potential and maybe a good source for the production of drugs with strong anti-proliferative potential.
- ItemOpen AccessAnticlastogenic Properties of Methanolic Extract of Cnestis ferruginea Leaves(Faculty of Applied Sciences, LAUTECH, 2006) Badmus, J. A.; Odunola, O. A.; Ola-Davies, O. E.; Adisa, R. A.The inhibitory activity of methanolic extract of Cnestis ferruginea was investigated in bone marrow cells of mice using micronucleus assay. The mice were fed with the extracts of two different concentrations (100 and 200mg/kg body weight) while control mice were fed with corn oil for six days ad libitum. On the seventh day the mice were administered a single dose of sodium arsenite (2.5mg/kg) and sacrificed after 24hrs. Bone marrow smear were prepared for observation of clastogenic effect. Results show micronuclei formation in the polychromatic erythrocyte (PCEs) in the Sodium arsenite treated mice. Clastogenecity induced by sodium arsenite was significantly reduced in mice pretreated with the extract at 100mg/kg body weight while more significant reduction was noted at 200mg/kg body weight. The result indicates a dose dependent relationship of the inhibitory activity of the extract against sodium arsenite induced clastogenecity.
- ItemOpen AccessAntidepressant Activity of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Annona muricata L., in Sprague-Dawley Rats(American Journal of Biochemistry, 2017-07-01) EBUEHI, O.A.T.Background: Annona muricata L. is a plant renowned for several therapeutic folklore uses, in many Caribbean communities where as revealed in literature the leaves, bark and roots are made into tea for calming effects as sedative, heart tonic and hypertensive medication. In Nigeria, these potential health benefits are untapped since A. muricata is classified as an under-utilized plant. The present study determined the antidepressant and behavioral properties of the Nigerian grown Annona muricata in Sprague-Dawley rats using the open field test and forced swim test. Methods: Rats were administered A. muricata leaf extract (50, 150 and 300mg/kg) alone, as well as in combination with imipramine or sertraline (10mg/kg) for 14days. Results: The extract was found to reduce the explorative tendencies of the rats in the open field test. In the forced swim test the extract caused a significant reduction in immobility time and increased swimming time. Combination of the extracts with imipramine or sertraline further decreased the explorative tendencies at 150mg/kg concentration and the immobility time at 150 and 300mg/kg. Conclusion: The results obtained proposed a sedative and antidepressant-like effect of ethanol extract of A. muricata, confirming the ethnomedicinal use of the ethanol leaf extract of A. muricata for the management of depression.
- ItemOpen AccessAntidepressant Activity of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Annona muricata L., in Sprague-Dawley Rats(Scientific & Academic Publishing, 2017) Bikomo, E.O.; Magbagbeola, O.A.; Ebuehi, O.A.Background: Annona muricata L. is a plant renowned for several therapeutic folklore uses, in many Caribbean communities where as revealed in literature the leaves, bark and roots are made into tea for calming effects as sedative, heart tonic and hypertensive medication. In Nigeria, these potential health benefits are untapped since A. muricata is classified as an under-utilized plant. The present study determined the antidepressant and behavioral properties of the Nigerian grown Annona muricata in Sprague-Dawley rats using the open field test and forced swim test. Methods: Rats were administered A. muricata leaf extract (50, 150 and 300mg/kg) alone, as well as in combination with imipramine or sertraline (10mg/kg) for 14days. Results: The extract was found to reduce the explorative tendencies of the rats in the open field test. In the forced swim test the extract caused a significant reduction in immobility time and increased swimming time. Combination of the extracts with imipramine or sertraline further decreased the explorative tendencies at 150mg/kg concentration and the immobility time at 150 and 300mg/kg. Conclusion: The results obtained proposed a sedative and antidepressant-like effect of ethanol extract of A. muricata, confirming the ethnomedicinal use of the ethanol leaf extract of A. muricata for the management of depression.
- ItemOpen AccessAntidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Implications of Oolong Tea (Camellia sinensis extract)(Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2013) Imaga, Ngozi Awa; Hunga, SeyonOolong tea is a traditional Chinese tea known for its high antioxidant content and its purported use in managing several conditions such as obesity, diabetes and ageing. In this study oolong tea was analysed for its phytochemical composition, nutrient composition, antioxidant properties and its effect on selected rat organs and tissues. The extract was found to contain several phytochemicals with phenol (157.84 μg GAE/mg), flavonoids (158.15 μg GAE/mg) and tannins (343.3 μg GAE/mg) present in high concentration. The result of proximate analysis showed that most of the oolong tea is crude fibre (45%) with very low moisture content (4%). Antioxidant enzyme assay showed high level of total antioxidant activity and DPPH free radical scavenging activity with the highest activity at 25% concentration in both. Daily administration of extract to rats led to a decrease in the lipid profile of the test rats relative to control; also there was decrease in the glucose level of test rats relative to control. In vivo antioxidant enzyme assay showed a lower level of the antioxidants, GSH, SOD and Catalase in the test rats compared to control with a higher level of MDA suggesting increased lipid peroxidation in test rats. Liver function test revealed a lower level of liver function enzymes in the test rats suggesting improved liver function in the test rats probably due to the effect of the antioxidants in the extract. In conclusion, the oolong was well tolerated in vivo and gave indications of possible use as a hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic agent.
- ItemOpen AccessAntimicrobial effects of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes extracts on selected pathogenic clinical isolates(The Bioscientist Journal, 2013-05) Igwo-Ezikpe, M.N.; Imaga, N.O.A.; Ogbunugafor, H.A.; Osuntoki, A.A.; Adeleye, S.; Ipadeola, A.O.The success of microbial chemotherapy lies in the continuous search for novel drugs to counter the challenges posed by resistant strains. The antimicrobial and growth inhibition effect of different Zingiber officinale solvent extracts (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, butanol, methanol and water extract) were investigated against five pathogenic bacterial and fungal isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus subtili sand Candida albicans). Agar well diffusion technique was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts while broth dilution technique was used for Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC). The zones of inhibition on agar wells were observed to vary depending on the microbe and type of extract. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited the most prominent antimicrobial activity as it was effective against all the five pathogenic microbes (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas putida and Candida albicans), but was more toxic against Bacillus subtilis (14 mm). Butanol extract showed toxicity against Bacillus subtilis (10 mm) and Candida albicans (12 mm). Chloroform extract showed antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans (10.0 mm). However, aqueous, methanol, petroleum and n-hexane extracts did not show any antimicrobial activity against the pathogens studied. Ethyl acetate extract exhibited its antibacterial and antifungal efficacy with an MIC value of 50 mg/ml against P. putida, B. subtilis and C. albicans while chloroform extract was effective at 100 mg/ml against C. albicans. Furthermore, butanol and ethyl acetate extracts also showed their antimicrobial efficacy against C. albicans and E. coli respectively with an MIC of 100 mg/ml. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration determined for the potent extracts showed that butanol extract had bactericidal efficacy at 25 mg/ml concentration against Bacillus subtilis. Ethyl acetate extract also exhibited its antibacterial potency at an MBC of 50 mg/ml against P. putida, B. subtilis and S. aureus but at 100 mg/ml against E. coli. For the Minimum Fungicidal Concentration, butanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts were effective as fungicidal agents against Candida albicans at MFC of 100 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml respectively. This study has shown the potential of ginger rhizomes as`possible antimicrobial agent.
- ItemOpen AccessAntioxidant Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rabbits(Science Publishing Group, 2018-06-15) Enefe, N.D.; Ebuehi, O.A.The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of alloxan–induced diabetes on some oxidative stress markers in rabbits. Ten rabbits weighing between 1.0-1.5kg were used and divided into two groups of five rabbits each. Diabetes was induced in one of the groups, by intraperitonial administration of alloxan at a dosage of 150mg/kg body weight and the control rabbits were administered normal saline (0.9% NaCl). The animals were monitored for 14days after confirmed diabetes in the test group. The fasting plasma glucose, plasma insulin, plasma lipids, the antioxidant enzymes Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and lipid peroxidation were assayed for, in the plasma and the brain of the diabetic and non-diabetic rabbits. The results showed a significant decrease in mean body weight of the alloxan-induced diabetic and control rabbits pre and 14days post alloxan-induction. There was a significant (p < 0.01) increase in fasting plasma glucose, a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in the activity of SOD and a significant (p < 0.01) increase in the activity of catalase in the plasma and brain; there was also a significant (p < 0.01) increase in the level of lipid peroxidation, plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in the diabetic rabbits. Culminating a depletion of SOD activity, the altered activity of plasma (or brain) catalase and increased lipid peroxidation isdue to the oxidative stress induced by the diabetic condition, hence the present study indicate that alloxan – induced diabetic potentiated oxidative stress in a short term duration. This shows the importance of antioxidant mimetics to be administered at early stage of diabetics in other to increase the antioxidant capacity thus preventing oxidative stress which may lead to complication in diabetes.
- ItemOpen AccessAntisickling and toxicological profiles of leaf and stem of Parquetina nigrescens L.(Academic Journals, 2010-04-18) Imaga, N.O.A.; Gbenle, G.O.; Okochi, V.I.; Adenekan, S.O.; Edeoghon, S.O.; Kehinde, M.O.; Bamiro, S.B.; Ajiboye, A.; Obinna, A.Folk medicine reportedly uses Parquetina nigrescens L. (Asclepiadaceae) as a herbal remedy for the management of sickle cell anemia. This study was carried out to screen the leaves and stem of P. nigrescens for antisickling activity, erythrocyte membrane -stabilizing effects and any end organ toxicity. Percentage reversal and inhibition of sickling parameters were analyzed on pre-sickled HbSS blood cell suspensions using sodium metabisulphite solution as inducer and 5 mg/ml parahydroxybenzoic acid and normal saline as positive and negative controls respectively. Effects of the plant extracts on the erythrocyte were assessed using osmotic fragility and the toxicity profile done via LD50 and sub-acute toxicity studies on graded concentrations of extract. Results show that P. nigrescens has appreciable antisickling activity, has no toxic effect when administered at low concentrations and protects the integrity of the erythrocyte membrane as evidenced in the fragiliogram by the reduction in hemolysis of the Hbss cells.
- ItemOpen AccessAntisickling property of Carica papaya leaf extract(Academic Journals, 2009-04) Imaga, N.O.A.; Gbenle, G.O.; Okochi, V.I.; Akanbi, S.O.; Edeoghon, S.O.; Oigbochie, V.; Kehinde, M.O.; Bamiro, S.B.Sickle cell disease (SCD) results from a mutation in the hemoglobin inside the red blood cells, where a glutamic acid at position 6 is replaced by a valine. Many phytomedicines have been identified as potential antisickling agents, stemming from reported usage as ethnomedicines by the local folk. This research examined methanolic leaf extracts of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) for possible in vitro antisickling and membrane-stabilizing activities involving the use of positive (p-hydroxybenzoic acid 5 mg/ml) and negative (normal saline) controls for the antisickling experiments and osmotic fragility test on Hbss red blood cells obtained from non-crisis state sickle cell patients. Fragiliograms indicated that the plant extract reduced hemolysis and protected erythrocyte membrane integrity under osmotic stress conditions. Pretreatment of SS cell suspensions with C. papaya leaf extract inhibited formation of sickle cells under severe hypoxia, with only 0 - 5% sickle cells at 40 min compared with untreated SS cell suspensions which had over 60% sickle cells. These results indicate the feasibility of C. papaya as an attractive potential candidate for SCD therapy.
- ItemOpen AccessAssessment of antioxidation potential of selected plants with antisickling property(Academic Journals, 2010-11-04) Imaga, Ngozi O. A.; Adenekan, S.O.; Yussuph, G.A.; Nwoyimi, T.I.; Balogun, O.O.; Eguntola, T.A.Methanol extracts of herbs hitherto reported to have antisickling activity namely, Carica papaya leaf extract, Fagara zanthoxyloides root extract, Cajanus cajan seed extract and Parquetina nigrescens leaf extract, were evaluated in this study. An assessment of their antioxidation potential was determined by assaying for their phytochemical constituents, total phenol content, scavenging activity on 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and total antioxidant status through the ferric thiocyanate method. The extracts have similar phytochemical constituents and exhibited high scavenging activity compared to gallic acid and ascorbic acid standards due to their relatively high total phenol content. These findings suggest that C. papaya leaf extract, F. zanthoxyloides root extract, C. cajan seed extract and P. nigrescens leaf extract are endowed with antioxidant phytochemicals which may act singly or synergistically to potentiate the antisickling action of the plants.
- ItemOpen AccessAssessment of biochemical effect of “Power Horse” energy drink on hepatic, renal and histological functions in Sprague Dawley rats(SCIENCEDOMAIN international, 2011-05-12) Akande, I.S; Banjoko, O.AObjective: Energy drinks are popular and widespread and raising concerns about implications on human health. Hepatological, histological and renal function tests of Sprague-Dawley albino rats were investigated in rat liver, brain and kidney by administering “power-horse” energy drink. Methodology: For this study twenty healthy adult female rats (142 – 148g) were divided into 4 groups with 5 rats in each group and they were treated as follows: Control group was given water only after acclimatization for 28 days when food and water were freely available to the four groups. Low dose group (administered energy drink of 10mg/kg body weight) and high dose group (administered energy drink of 20mg/kg body weight). Recovery groups received high dose of energy drink (20mg/kg body weight) for 14 days and allowed a recovery phase of 7 days thereafter when they received water and standard diet. Rats were sacrificed and blood samples collected through orbital sinus and cardiac puncture. Liver, brain and kidney tissues for all the groups were harvested. Liver and renal function parameters were analyzed while liver; brain and kidney were histologically examined. Results: Serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities increased significantly (p<0.05) in the experimental groups compared with the control (49.83±0.38 U/L, 582.33±9.06 U/L vs. 44.40±0.60 U/L, 331±4.90 U/L) while the activities of ALT and AST in the recovery group reduced, although not significantly (P>0.05) compared with the high dose group. Urea concentrations in the experimental groups increased (P<0.05) significantly compared with the control (10.10±0.15mmol/L vs.3.66±0.10 mmol/L). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the concentrations of creatinine in the experimental groups compared with the control group (44.20±00 mmol/L vs. 44.20±02 mmol/L). Serum Na and HCO32- in the experimental groups increased (P<0.05) significantly when compared with the control group (141.07± 0.56, 28.03±0.09 vs. 136.62± 0.72, 23.15±0.65). Conclusion: Data of the present study indicate that “Power Horse” consumption has adverse effects on the liver and therefore requires caution in its consumption.
- ItemOpen AccessAssessment of liver antioxidant status and mitochondrial membrane composition of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice treated with selected antimalarials(Acta Biochimica Polonica, 2017-08-09) Adisa, R.A.; Sulaimon, L.A.The present study was aimed at determining and comparing the effects of Artecxin (ART), P – Alaxin (P-ALA), Lonart (LON) and Chloroquine (CQ) on oxidative stress parameters and mitochondrial membrane composition in the course of malaria infection. Six groups of five mice each categorized as healthy control (nonparasitized non-treated group), parasitized-non-treated (PnT), parasitized-chloroquine-treated (positive control), parasitized-Artecxin, -Lonart and -P-Alaxin-treated groups were used for the study. Hepatic antioxidant status was assessed with levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the post mitochondrial and mitochondrial fractions. Mitochondrial membrane integrity was also evaluated with activity of succinate dehydrogenase and levels of phospholipids, cholesterol and proteins in the liver mitochondria. Results revealed that treatment of parasitized mice with the antimalarial drugs significantly (p<0.05) decreased hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and mitochondrial membrane phospholipids compared to parasitized untreated group. On the other hand, significantly (p<0.05) elevated succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, mitochondrial membrane cholesterol level, GSH concentration, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the post mitochondrial fraction were obtained. Thus, antimalarial drugs distort mitochondrial membrane integrity and electron transfer but reduce the malaria-induced oxidative stress on the host.
- ItemOpen AccessAssessment of Microbial Changes and Nutritional Qualities of Extruded White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) and Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranean) Blends(Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2012-11-19) EBUEHI, O.A.T.Two flavoured extruded products were developed by co-extruding yam grits (750 μm) obtained from white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) and bambara groundnut flour (250 μm) in 160:40 respectively obtained from white bambara groundnut with added flavouring agents of salt (1% - 3%) and sugar (4% - 6%) in the feed blends at screw speed of 70 rpm, 17.5%, feed moisture and at the barrel temperature of 145℃. The extruded products were packaged in low density polyethylene bag (0.02 μm gauge size) and stored at room temperature (28℃ ± 2℃) and at refrigeration temperature (9℃ ± 2℃) for a period of twenty weeks. The microbiological changes in the extruded products as determined by the total plate under both storage conditions showed that maximum total plate counts were 0.5 × 104 and 5.4 × 104 cfu/g at 9℃ ± 2℃ and 28℃ ± 2℃ respectively. Nutritional evaluation studies of extrudates were comparable (p ≥ 0.05) with standard casein diet with minimum crude protein content of 13.51% providing 1707.2 KJ energy per 100gof diet and supported weight gain and growth of laboratory animals.
- ItemOpen AccessBiochemical Assessment of the effects of the consumption of heavy metal contaminated fish (Oreochromics niloticus) on hematological parameters in rat.(University of Lagos Publication, 2012) Bolawa, O.E.; Gbenle, G.O.The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effect of the consumption of heavy metal contaminated fish (Orechromis niloticus) by rats on heamatological parameters. The experimental group of rats were exposed to a fish diet of Orechromis niloticus collected from polluted riverine sources. The result showed a significant decrease in the haemoglobin content from 12.60 g/dl to 4.20 g/dl, red blood cells (RBC) from 7.39 to 2.47 x 105/mm3 and packed cell volume (PCV) from 29% to 24% and 27%. Whereas the white blood cells (WBC) increased significantly from 69.00 to 72.00 and 77.00x102/mm3, mean corpuscular volume increased from 55.40 to 56.00 and 58.00cµ. The mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) values showed significant increase during the exposure to fish diet. The different leucocytes count (DLC) showed a significant increase in the populations of lymphocytes whereas neutrophils, monocytes, basophil and eosinophils were found decreased after exposure to the fish diet.
- ItemOpen AccessBiochemical assessment of Ciklavit®, a nutraceutical used in sickle cell anaemia management(Elsevier, 2013-08-02) Imaga, Ngozi Awa; Chukwu, Charity E.; Blankson, Adenike; Gbenle, George O.Ciklavit® made from the extracts of the plant Cajanus Cajan is an herbal formulation used for the management of sickle cell anaemia. This study investigated the antisickling and overall biochemical effect of Ciklavit® in sickle cell anaemic subjects. Human subjects with confirmed Hbss status formed the experimental and control groups. The experimental group were administered with the Ciklavit® for two weeks. Percentage sickling, foetal haemoglobin concentration and other haematological parameters were determined. Liver function, kidney function, nitric oxide concentration and arginase activity were also determined. In vitro administration of Ciklavit® showed a reversal of sickling effect, which was more effective when compared to that of hydroxybenzoic acid. Estimation of foetal haemoglobin was carried out by the alkali denaturation method. Foetal haemoglobin level was found to increase significantly by day 28. Other haematological parameters were estimated using a sysmex analyzer (KX-2100). Mean PCV, Hb and MCH showed no appreciable changes. WBC values were found to increase significantly by day 21. Alkaline phosphatise and total protein values were found to reduce significantly by day 14 and day 21 (p = 0.017), (p = 0.048) respectively. Total bilirubin values also reduced significantly by day 21 (p = 0.018). Mean creatinine, urea, albumin, nitric oxide concentrations and arginase activity showed no appreciable changes. Results showed that the antisickling activity of Ciklavit® is quite potent and ameliorates the adverse effect of sickle cell anaemia on the liver. One of the antisickling effects or mechanisms of action of Ciklavit® may involve the induction of foetal haemoglobin production. Our results show that Ciklavit® may be a promising herbal medicine for sickle cell anaemia.
- ItemOpen AccessBiochemical Evaluation and Toxicology Potential of Lacidipine on Normotensive Rats(Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine, 2005) Ukpo, G.E.; Owolabi, M.A.; Adewole, T.A.; Awa, N.O.Lacidipine, a newly developed, 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative with potent and long lasting antihypertensive activity was biochemically evaluated and its toxicological potential assessed in normontensive male rats who were fed with the drug ranging from 0.02 to 0.23 mg/kg body weight over a two-week period. At the end of dosing, the rats were sacrificed and clinical chemistry assays on serum marker enzymes as well as histopathologic examinations on liver, heart and brain tissues were performed. Results obtained from chemistry analysis revealed slight variations in the levels of creatinine kinase, (CK), aspartate transaminase (AST) alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) levels. The variations were however found to be within normal biologic limits. Kidney functions assessed by serum, urea and uric acid did not show any significant effects of the drug on renal status of normotensive rats. Serum calcium levels varied within expected ranges and thus revealed no significant alterations. There was no abnormality revealed in the liver, heart and brain tissues subjected to histopathologic examinations. From our study we conclude: Lacidipine does not cause significant target organ toxicity or adverse effects on normotensive rats.